|1||Engine and thruster controls / telegraph recorder|
|q||Steering gear, including manual, auto pilot and emergency changeover and testing arrangement|
|3||Automatic track keeping system, if fitted|
|4||ECDIS and electronic charts, if fitted|
|5||IBS system, if fitted|
|6||location and operation of ancillary bridge equipment(eg: Binoculars, signaling flags, metrological|
|7||Stowage of charts and hydrographic publications|
|8||Nautical publication – MIN, MSN, MGN|
|TAKING OVER A WATCH|
|Fit enough / sound sleep / no alcohol/ aware of time of start of my watch, go 15 min prior to the start of my|
|1||Any standing orders, verbal order from master, night order book|
|2||Check posn of vessel prior / present|
|3||Any a/c during my watch|
|4||No go areas well marked on chart and check|
|5||Other important details reg nav marked / matched in chart|
|6||Course plotted with wpts and chart corrected|
|7||Routine / voyage / next / used – charts and location|
|8||All respective publications|
|9||Log book, bell book, night order book in place and any instructions in it|
|10||Stationeries – location|
|11||Instruments : chronometer / barometer / barograph / navtex / gmdss|
|12||Wx – tides, forecasts, effects on vsl’s co’s and speed|
|1||Nav light (morse, aldis, search light) emergency it. Ok|
|2||Sound signaling apparatus (whistle, fog bell, gong) ok. Verbal confirm.|
|3||Safety equipment – (pyrotechnics, epirb, sart, I/jackets, alarms) ok.|
|4||Communications – ok|
|5||Instruments – will check, echo sounder, enps, course recorder, gyro, – magnetic diff. Log in book|
|6||Will check gyro repeaters alignment|
|7||Will check for alarm system on bridge|
|8||Look for ancillary bridge equipments (binoculars, flag, met equip)|
|9||See for RADAR (ARPA) (will check for and compare with actual target)|
|10||Will check for traffic density of area|
|11||Nav hazards expected|
|12||Possible effects of heel / trim / water density – squat during watch|
|13||Any nav watch probs. Prev.|
|14||Will keep insight of deck work if going on|
|15||Look out fit enough to carry out the job|
|16||Will check look out / er station / all repeaters / indicators / dimmer etc|
|17||Procedure for use of m/eng to maneuvers, when m/eng is on bridge control|
|18||Will not touch radar and will not take over the watch if collision avoidance is going on|
|HANDING OVER THE NAVIGATIONAL WATCH|
|First of all I observe whether the relief is tit enough to carry out the watch|
|1||Has the relief read the standing orders / night orders|
|2||Will show him the posn of vsl on chart|
|3||Indicate any fourth coming alteration of course during his watch|
|4||Indicates landmark / light in view|
|5||Indicate any hazards likely to be encountered during his watch|
|6||Indicate toward the location of voyage / next / routine charts and pub|
|10||Courses and errors|
|1||Status of nav lights and shapes|
|2||Sound signaling apparatus|
|3||The traffic density in the sight / vicinity ( Visually / radar)|
|4||Any hazards encountered / to be encountered|
|5||Possible effects of heel / trim / water density / squat on ukc|
|6||Speed and engine status|
|7||Will inform him if I had any nav watch probs|
|8||Deck crew working what / where any verbal inst for them|
|9||Status of any other bridge equipment – necessary for the safe conduct of the ship including the|
|provision of lookout and helmsman|
|10||I will plots last fix at an appointed time, complete maneuvers that are taking place and ask if the|
|relief is ready to take over the watch|
|PERFORMING THE NAV WATCH OR DURING THE WATCH|
|The officer in charge of the nav watch shall:|
|1||Keep the watch on the bridge will maintain lookout by sight and hearing and all available means|
|2||In no circumstances leave the bridge until properly relieved|
|3||Course, speed, posn to be checked at frequent intervals and nav aids to be made use of to keep the|
|vsl or planned route during the watch|
|4||Make sure to carry out master’s standing orders|
|5||Full knowledge of location and use of safety and nav equipments and their operating limitations|
|6||To comply with irpcs while using radar – limitations|
|7||Helm, engines, sound signaling apparatus at oww’s discretion should be used. Timely notice for speed|
|variation to er|
|8||Aware of handling characteristics of vsl and its stopping distance and that other ships may /will have|
|different handling character tics|
|9||Ensure that auto pilot and he!ms man are steering req co’s steering motor change over if req|
|10||Take error in every watch epically alteration of course|
|11||Plots and check position of vsl at frequent interval|
|12||Check radar performance once in watch|
|13||Check barometer and barograph|
|14||A proper record shall be kept during the watch of the movements and activities relating to the|
|navigation of the ship if maneuvering. Bell book|
|15||Wx and reports|
|16||Cargo condn, draught, ballast condn, er status|
|17||Deck crew working in my sight|
|18||If in any doubt and emergency call master|
|19||Solas and coregs to be practiced at all time and any action would be board and in ample time|
|RESTRICTED VISIBILITY – ACTION BY OOW|
|3||Switch no sound signal|
|4||Proceed at a safe speed|
|5||Engines ready for immediate maneuver|
|6||Post extra look out|
|7||Exhibit navigation lights|
|8||keep good radar watch|
|9||Bridge door – Keep open|
|10||Stop – deck work (since noisy)|
|11||Wheel on hand steering|
|12||Channel 16 – to be monitored|
|13||Follow col regs – rule 19|
|14||Make logbook entry|
|15||It is important that the oow show know the handling characteristics of the ship including its stopping|
|1||If restricted visiblity encountered or suspected|
|2||If traffic condition or the movements of other ships are causing concern|
|3||If difficulty is experienced in maintaining course|
|4||On faliure of sight land, a navigation mark or to obtain sounding by the expected time|
|5||If unexceptedly sighted land or a navigation mark or change in sounding occurs|
|6||On breakdown of main engines, steering gear or any essential nav equipments, alarms or indication|
|7||If radio equipment malfunctions|
|8||In heavy wx if any doubt about the possibility of wx damage|
|9||If the ship meets any hazard to navigation, such as ice or derelict|
|10||If any other emergency or if in sny doubt|
PERFORM1NG THE NAY WATCH OR DURING THE WATCH
The officer in charge of the nay watch shall:
1 Keep the watch on the bridge will maintain lookout hy sight and hearing and all available means.
2. In no circumstances leave the bridge until properly relieved.
3. Course, speed, posn to be checked at frequent intervals and nay aids to be made use of to keep the vsl on planned route during the watch.
4. Make sure to carry out master’s standing orders.
5. Full knowledge of location and use of safety and nay equipments and their operating limitations.
6. To comply with irpes while using radar — limitations.
7. Helm, engines, sound signaling apparatus at cow’s discrection should be used. Timely notice for speed variation to er.
8. Aware of handling characteristics of vsl and its stopping distance Vand that other ships may/will have different handling characteristics. .
9 Ensure that auto pilot and he’ms man are steering req co’s steering motor change over if req.
10. Take errors in every watch especially alteration of course.
11. Plots and check position of vsl at frequent intervals.
12. Check radar, performance once in a watch. .
13. Check’barohieter and barograph.
14. A proper record shall be kept during the watch of the movements and activities relating tothe navigation of the ship if maneuvering Bell book.
15. Wx and reports.
16. Cargo condi, draught, ballast condn, er status.
17. Deck crew working in my sight.
18. If in any doubt and emergency call master.
19. Solas and coregs to be practiced at all time and and any action would be broad and in ample time.
RESTRICTED VISIBILITY – ACTION BY OOW.
1. Inform master
2. Inform EIR
3. Switch on sound signal.
5. Enginesready for immediate maneuver.
6. Post extra look out.
7. Exhibit navigation lights.
8.. Keep good radar watch.
9. Bridge door – keep open
10. Stop – deck work (since noisy)
11. Wheel on hand steering.
12. Channel 16 – to be monitored.
13. Follow col regs – rule 19
14. Make log book entry.
15. It is important that the oow show know the handling characteristics of the ship including its stopping distance.
1. If restricted visibility encountered or suspected.
2. If traffic conditions or the movements of other ships are causing concern.
3. If difficulty is experienced in maintaining course.
4. On failure to sight land, a navigation mark or to obtain soundings by the expected time.
5. If unexpectedly sighted land or a navigation mark or change in sounding occurs.
6. On breakdownof main engines, steering gear or any essentiI nay equipments, alarms or indication.
7. If radio equipment malfunctions.
8. In heavy wx if any doubt about the possibility of wx damage.
9, If the ship meets any hazard to navigation, such as ice or derelict.
10. If any other emergency or if in any doubt.
1. First check any standing orders, ppe.
2. Meleorological warnings if any.
3. Rising and falling of tide (time and level) (tide table).
5. Company reports – wx repbrts etc.
6. Flags to be used/hoisted as per local I mt regs and requirements.
7. Check for any unwanted instrument/ equipment running.
8. Bridge to be locked after the above checks.
9. While going down checking and locking of all store lockers and accm doors.
1. Adequate lighting oh gangway.
2. isc and lfebuoy reads’ near the gangwa’.
3. Fire plat checked.
4. Mooring-. fwd/aft checked, rat guards placed.
5. Overboard discharges checked.
6. Deck scáppers chocked/plugged and tightness checked.
7. All accm doors closed except one for use.
8. All access and doors, bo slippery spaces and obstcn.
9. On man on duty on gangway always.
By c/o: any ballasting/deballasting, bunkers and cargo.
Any stores to be record.
Any special instructions from port authority.,
If intend loading cargo / or near vsl — type details, gangs involved, cargo gear— use
Crew onboard and how many ashore.
1. Gangway and securing watch.
3. Fire watch and antipiracy watch.
4. Wx look out.
5. FFA in order (ready for use).
6. Sufficient crew on duty with ppe and present or not.
7. To comply with local and mt rule of country.
8. I will ensure the safety of man and material and prevent the environment from pollution at all costs.
Enter every event in the mate’s logbook.
PORT WATCHES WITH CARGO
Same steps that of port watches without cargo further includes:
1. Any standing order from master or chief officer.
2. Cargo plan, stowage and stacking Inst.
4. Bob for this port.
5. No. Of gangs working their break timings.
6. Stevedore / supervisor / tally clerk.
7. Any special cargo/dangerous cargo loading or discharging.
8. Forklifts in the hatch.
9. Condition of the ballast tanks.
10. Trim/list to.be checked.
11. As per and swl of all cargo gears in use and their parts.
12. Winchman to be competent.
13. Checking of gear and cargo from the other side not underneath.
14. Check fire wire.
15. Deck to be well illuminated.
16. Enter every work of cargo in mates log book.
17. COSWOP to be used thoroughly.
1 8. Fresh water.
1. Ships particulars. -
2. Wheel house poster.
3. DF calibration card
4. Deviation card
5. Solas card no.1 (annexes iv distress signals).
9. Emergency steering failure procedure.
10. LSA, FFA, placard
11. Ism checklist.
12. Garbage poster.
13. Emergency contact tm.
14. Masters standing order.
15. Pilot ladder rigging arrangement.
16. Load line zone chart.
18. VHF dsc alert sending procedure.
19. MF/HF dsc alert sending procedure.
1. Ships registry cert – life long
2. Lod.linece – 5yrs.
3. mt tonnage àert – l.long until str change;
4. Classification cert – 4 yrs annual exam – l.long until material change.
5. Interim cert of class – until next survey due.
6. Ccii of seaworthiness – by class society.
7. Safety equip cert = dti surveyor – 2 yrs.
8. Safety rtg cert – 1 yr.
9. Safety r.telephone cert – 1 yr.
10. Cargo ship construction – 5 yr.
11. All coc – dot5yrs.
12. Derating cert – port health. – 6 months.
13. Derating exem cert – 6 months.
14. Anchor and cable cert – class soci6ty – life long.
15. Register of mach and chains dti – 4 yrs
16. IOPP (insurance) intermediate – 5 yrs.
17. Safe manning cert.
18. Cert of insurance to cover o.p
19. Stability info – from builder – life long.
20. Wire less broadcasting – dti (telecom)
LOADING OF DANGEROUS GOODS PREPARATIONS:
1. Supervision / instruction from the master / mate along with cargo plan.
2. Cargo type, location.
3. Cargo details from shipper – Type of Packages/Quantity/Weight/SF.
4. ESTB communication wearing PPE for self and crew on duty.
5. Consult IMDGand perhaps ioadingrnanual too, andloading as per segregation table of IMDG.
6. Make sutathe holds are ready for loadingsuabcargo in all respects, no oil,wood, rags etc. in.
7. B flag or Red light shown.
8. Dangerous goods only to be loaded during daylight hours.
9. Stop other cargo, any bunkering if in progress, no hot work.
10. Check for Temperatures in HOLD.
11. Provision of special lifting gear to prevent damage to cargo when handling.
12. Compartments containing cargo having explosive or riser should have fire fighting equipments rigged for
immediate use. —
13. Appropriate measures should be taken to render any spillage harmless.
14. When there is Leakage or Escape of dangerous gases or vapours the area should be evacuated, ventilated, and tested before entry.
15. When dealing with spillages or the removal of defective packages, suitableBA sets and protective clothing should be provided as the circumstances dictate.
16. In the event of any accidental exposure to dangerous substances, references should be made to IMDG, Medical Guide for remedial action MFAG.
17. No smoking boards.
18. Crew on stand-by, port authority informed, dept. And heads informed.
Q. V/L in port. What checks for Gangway as duty officer.
Safety net, adequate lighting, No shore leave/unauthorized persons not allowed notice board, Gangway record book, Tel no. of fire brigade and port authorities, Life buoy, FFA of the place, International shore connection, Fire plan crewlist,hips GA an, fire plan
Q. Abandon ship orders during July/August in Indian Ocean, problems may face while launching life boat?
In these months we generally pet choppy seas and lots of rains making visibility poor at times.
Generally Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea is hot and humid. On the other way Indian Ocean being hot and humid gets persistent rains making visibility poor at times.
The same monsoon effect.which is at western parts of Indian subcontinent including Gulf of Kutch is warm too. Along with rains, TRC develops at this seasons only: Same goes with east coast of India- Monsoon & TRC.
Stevedore informs duty officer loading finishes within one hour.
1. Inform master, CO & all dept heads.
3. Inform the agent to book the pilot as per Masters-order & instructions.
4. Control tests to be done once again although done 12 hours before once.
5. Final loading to go as per final instructions of C/O. & stowage plan.
6. Not to allow for any list & attain required trim with correct Idading.
7. Check for draught & final draught.
8. Secure & lash the cargo as instructed during.
9. Batten down the hatches V& secure the gears.
10. No loose gearon deck, all back in the stores well secured.
11. Fire and anti pilferage watch to be maintained.
12. Check for stowage.
13. All lockers stores doors and hatch access to be closed.
14. Accommodation door to be closed except one.
15. On bridge — check & clean, arrange & ready flag for pilot, log book, bell book, & other required papers to be made
ready. Make sure Gyro is always on, Pilot card.
16. Radar stand by, GPS WPT feeding complete, P/pub chart ready, all requisite pubs ready, wx report forecasts ready.
17. Sound signal to be tried out as port informed.
18. Nay lights to be tested, telegraph etc. inform and await for master’s inst’s, keep listening watch on VHF CH 16/13 & local CH, crew stand by, confirm POB time from port.
Agent brings new coil of wire rope? What checks?
Invoice- as per specifications compare with original indent, dia, chaffing, bristex and most important check for its test certificate. (as per factory) kept in ships office.
Checks about fire extinguishers?
Check the catch for loose fitting.
Release mechanism such as strap and lock
Installation as per location
Last serviced, date of expiry
Loading of iron I steel pipes / plates?
Check bilges are working — satis
Lashing arrangements — laying of wire, welding points eyes bars.
Checking of fire alarm system -
Laying heavy damages and chocking by woods
Loading as per stowage plan, loading manual and do.
Final lashing complete.
If using ship gear — make sure to check swi, tank top stresses check.
What information you get in sailing directions / pilot book
Details regarding the coast — approach (particulars area)
Dangers ma go areas
Local I harbour rules, port authority
Working channel etc
Region a/b buoyage system
Panoramic / photographic view.
Area tidal information, depth I draught
Informtion in routine chart?
Monthly wx conditions – wind, sea, current, warning
Freezing line / zone
Recommended routes and distance
Covers and Particular Octan
Fire in Engine room duty as duty officer?
Raise fire alann
Inform master quickly
Head count at muster station
Stop eng and machinery and evacuate every one from er
Close all vents, blowers, doors.
Cut fuel supply and isolate er. Start em gen.
After all evacuated release co2 with masters instruction and permission.
Ready lifeboat for launching; Boundary cooling if possible.
Inform nearest port and follow their instructions.
2 persons with scba in to check status after 24 hrs.
Emg gen should be started prior for deck lightings etc.
Switching on radar — precautions.
No obstruction near the scanner.
No person near the antenna / scanner.
Performance monitor, blind sector.
RECOVERY FROM SURVIVAL CRAFT
1. Hospital : prepare hospital to receive the causality
provide medical aid — first aid
expect to treat for shock and hypothermia.
Stretcher, blanket, warm clothing’s, hot drinks wake ready.
2 Rescue apparatus: scrambling nets and boarding ladder rigged over side Together with a guest warp Derrickandaeckcranesswangover side torëóbver survival craft, provided the swi bfthe lifting gear is adequata. Cargo nets, cargo baskets is useful for recovering injured people.
3. Try to maneuver the rescue vessel to windward of the survival craft to create a lee, to aid the recovery.
4. Establish communication with the survival craft ASAP.
5. Acknowledge distress signal, flares by sound or light signals.
6. Enough heaving lines ready, lta (rocket) ready.
7. Maintaining notnal bridge watch, checking iiav1ational hazard in the vicinity Display correct flag signals. Keep other shipping as well as the coastal radio station. Informed of movement and situation.
RECOVERY FROM WATER
1. Preparations as recovery (survival craft)
2. Weather conditions: own boats if used is best method for recovering a perform from water. Ships motor boat is desirable and this should be launched within sight of survivor in a lee made by the parent vessel.
3. Injured persons to be taken aboard individually using stretchers.
4. Crew members to always wear appropriate ppe with safety harness and life jacket during the rescue operations.
5. Shooting of rocket line towards survivors may prove worth in dangerous sea conditions when it is difficult to launch boat.
6. Life buoy is worth to be provided to survivors since it is difficult for survivors to float long in water.
SEARCH AND RESCUE
1. Take the bearing of distress message if radio direction finder fitted.
2. Re transmit distress message.
3. Maintain acontinous listening watch on all distress frequencies.
4. Consult IAMSAR manuals.
5. Establish communications with all other surface units and sat aircraft involved in sar operation.
6. Plot position, courses and speeds of other assisting units.
7. Monitor x-bank radar for locating survival craft transponder (sart) signal using 6 or 12 nautical mile range scales.
8. Post extra look outs for sighting flares and other pyrotechnic signals.
1. Broadcast distress alert and message on the authority otthe master.
2. Instruct crew members to put on life jackets.
3. Wear adequate and warm clothing
4. Instruct crew members to put on immersion suits, if water temp is below 16 deg c
5. Order crewmember to ilfeboats stations.
6. Prepare to launch lifeboats / life rafts.
7. Ensure that lifeboat sea painters are attached to the ship.
8. Embark all crew in the lifeboats / life rafts and launch.
9. Ensure lifeboats / life rafts remain in safe proximity to the ship and in contact with each other.
OWN VESSEL AGROUND
1. Stop eng
2. Call or inform master and er
3. Sound general emg alarm
4. Close watertight doors, if fitted.
S. Check depth / sounding using echo sounder, draft considers.
6. Maintain a vhf watch on ch 16, if appropriate on ch 13.
7. Exhibit lights / shapes and make any appropriate sound signals. Nay lights oft
8. Switch on deck lights at night.
9. Check hull for damage.
10. sound bilges and tanks (db, fw, bkr, er.)
11. visually inspect compartment where possible.
12. Sound around ship.
13. Determine which way deep water lies.
14. Determine the nature of the seabed.
15. Damage control party to access the damage.
16. Obtain information on local currents and tides, particularly the details of time of rise and fall of the tide.
17. Reduce the draft of the ship.
18. Make ships posn available to radio room /gmdss station, satellite terminal and other automatic distress transmitters and update if necessary.
19. Broadcast distress alert and message if the ship is in grave and immediate danger and immediate assistance required, other wise broadcast an urgency message to ships in the vicinity.
20. Log entry, inform to port and obey the orders of port.
DUTIES OF SAFETY OFFICER
1. Supervise and control ships safety systems.
2. Maintain / care / testing of all life saving appliances (Jsa)
3. Maintain/care/testing of all fire fighting equipnient. (ffa).
4. Preparing requisitions for (2 and 3) and confirm they comply with req and reg.
5. Supervise boat drill.
6. Supervise fire drill.
7. Familiarize new crew with the location of safety equipment and their uses.
8. Attend safety committee meetings.
9. Be aware of remote alarm points.
10. Update muster list as required.
11. Show safety videos for all ships personnel.
12. Maintaining of all proper record of Isa and FFA equipments.
13. Carryout company safety policies on board effectively.
DUTIES OF OOW / 3rd officer
He is a masters representative and masters trust lies over him along with responsibility to carry out safe and sound navigational watch and duties.
1. Maintain a safe navigationaiwatch.
2. Maintain a proper look out by sight and hearing.
3. Follow col rep to avoid collision and traffic.
4. Familiarization iith all navigational equipment
5. Check vsl’s course regularly.
6. Plot vsl’s position regularly.
7. Monitor vsls progress along intended route.
8. Compare gyro comp with magnetic compasses.
9. Take compass error once a watch and every a/c of course.
10. Carry out radar plotting.
11. Record bridge activities in log book.
12. Beware of vsl’s turning circle and stopping distance.
13. Inform master any event / moment affecting vsl’s progress.
14. Understand handing over watch procedure.
15. Make periodic checks on nay equipments.
16. Be aware of safety equipments on bridge and their operation.
17. Be fully conversant with pollution prevention obligations and regulations.
18. General communications.
19. Ensure fire patrol, antipiracy watch maintained at all times.
20 Gmdss watch keeping.
21. Monitor cargo operations.
22. Monitor and control machinery.
23. Supervise routine work on deck.
24. Supervise rigging of pilot ladder, gangways, mooing, tire wire and bunker ops and man and material including prey of pollution at all times.
1. Establish communiöation.
2. Take orders / information from the master. Which side, how many shackles.
3. Wear PPE. Collection of designated crew with PPE.
4. Take right tools for the job.
5. Check for the lighting.
6. Check for power on deck / winch.
7. Unnecessary obstruction, slippery spaces, ropes near.cable — remove.
8. No overboard obstructions.
9. Check winch (wind lass) movement.
10. Will make sure brakes one tight since connecting to gear.
11. Lashing removed.
12. Gear engaged.
13. Checked overboard side.
14. Lower up to water level. (cock the bill) put back on brake.and out of gear.
15. Inform master on bridge and await instructions for letting go.
16 When ordered let go release full brake til1it.toiiëhsthe groutd td move stopped. Allow further to drop up to require level and start controlling the brake.
17. Once informed to stop / hold on. Immediately put on the brakes. Count the req shackle is at in.
18. Inform from time to time the position of cable to bridge. Once anchor touches the ground.
19. Day / night signal exhibited.
20. brakes tight, relating done, devils clauses, ch stopper etc.
21. Wait for the vsl to be bought up and inst from master.
22. Will take care of safety of life aspect throughout the operation.
Note: always make ready both anchors for letting go.
Same procedure for heaving / aweight.
PREPARATION FOR ARRIVAL IN PORT
1. In prep P.Plan pre pilotage info exchange
2. P.Plan update
3. ETA ………Local regulations….. (details of dangerous/hazardous goods carried)
4. Is it necessary to arrange Cargo/ballast?
5. Following equipments been prepared and checked: CCC. SD. MPAS
6. Steering gear…. Tested…engaged in manual …. Helmsman before maneuvering
*Usage of 2 steering motors for pilotage
7. Engines, been tested and prepare for maneuvering
8. Pilot card — completed and pilot embarkation arrangements?
9. VHF and Radio check — for various series (VTS, Pilot, tugs, berthing inst)
10. Port made arrange of any special berthing requirements
11. Prepare mooring stations and anchor stations with Masters Info…
PREPERATION FOR SEA I PRE SAILING CHECKS I CONTROL TEST
1. Passage plan: for the intended voyage…. Charts, books, Wx, Nay. Warnings…
2. Equipments: checked and ready for use… RPM indicator, emg engine stop, bridge and engine room telegraph, CPP md and controls it fitted
3. Equipments tested, synchronized and found ready for use
4. Communication: facilities including- Bridge, engine room, mooring stations, portable radios, VHF comm. with port authorities
5. Navigation and Signal lights
6. Sound signaling apparatus
7. Steering gear — manual — auto — emg. Change over and rudder indicators,
- full rudder move accordingly
- timing of rudder movement from hard over to hard over ensure
- visual inspection of.
- operation and means of communication between bridge and steering compartment
- bow thruster motor to be checked
8. Window wiper / clear view screen arrangements
9. Is ship secure for sea:
- Cargo and cargo handling gear / equipment
- Anchors clearaway for use
- Cargo / passenger details.
- Stability and draught info.
- Are all crew o/b and shore persons ashore? Stowaway check
- Are pilot embark / disembarkation arrangements in place
- Deficiencies reported and note of above made in log book
HEAVY WEATHER PREPARATIONS AND CHECKS
1. Inform Master, E/R, Crew and other departments such as Galley etc.
2. When Master on Bridge—ask him if reqd to plot alternate course, show him the recent Wx reports, square and secure up the bridge, wear proper PPE and organize respective crew with their PPE on.
3. Check whether all movable objects been secured above and below decks particularly in E/R,VGalley and store rooms, paint locker, boson store
4. Check whether ships accommodation been secured and all ports and deadlights closed
5 Boat deck — life boat well secured, check gripes
6. Check for Wx deck openings being secured — hatch Acers, doors, air and bilge pipe to be covered, sounding caps to be closed, mooring winches to be covered electrical ákts
7. Further on deck
- Rigging of safety line or hand rope on the deck on both the sides from fwd to aft
- Hatches to be batten down
- Gangway to be extra lashed and properly secured
- Closing of all watertightdoors
- Loose mooring ropes to be in and lashed
- All loose gears, drums etc to be secured and lashed
- Anchor to be extra lashed and secured, spuring pipe to be covered
- Scrupers and outlets to be kept open on deck
- Soundings must be checked
- Everything checked and done must be logged down and inform master
- Ballast condition to be checked and conveyed with do and master
- FSE to be reduced
- Cargo gear lashings with hook
- Cargo lashings to be tightened if loaded
8. Crew to be warned to avoid using / going to upper deck areas as it is dangerous in heavy wx
9. Instructions to be issued on following: monitoring Wx reports, transmitting Wx reports to the appropriate authorities or in case of tropical storms, danger messages in accordance with SOLAS
As OOW acbons to be carried out when Man Overboard
1. Immediately wheel hard over to causality side
2. Release MOB (smoke signal) apparatus with light and life buoy on the side of the crew member has fallen overboard
4. Sound Oscar ‘3 prolonged blasts on whistle” and repeat in necessary
5. Post a lookout with Binoculars and instnjct him for continues watch on MOB
6. Hoist signal flag “O”
7. Commence a recovery maneuver such as Williamson’s turn
8. Change over to hand (manual steering)
9. Note ships position, wind speed and direction and time
10. Inform Master if not on bridge andengine room
11. Place engines on.stand by
12. Muster rescue boat crew
13. Prepare rescue boat for possible launching (crew wearing Life jackets and safety harness PPE)
14. Distribute portable radio “VHF” for communication
15. Rig pilot ladder / nets to in recovery
16. Make ships position available to radioroom / GMDSS station
17. Broadcast Urgency message to ships in the vicinity
18. Prepare Hospital (may be suffering from hypothermia etc..)
19. Have long heaving line, L.Buoys, LTA ready if bad weather persists
Use of IMSAR if does not find causality
RECEIVING PILOT — PREPARATION
1. Wear proper PPE, orders from MasterVwhicb side pilot lâdderVand how many mtrs above
2. Establish communication with bridge
3. Take required/sufficient crew with PPE on
4. Cheek that the way for pilot is clear of obstruction
5. Checking of pilot ladder, should befree of oil and grease and any other damage (adequate lighting, clear of any oil patches, slippery space and any obstructions)
6. Pilot ladder to be rigged on the strongest point (also generally towards well rested to ship side or as required by pilot). No OB discharge. Height as per / pilot, life buoy with line and light near the pilot ladder.
7. Inform about the progress to bridge/master. Check personally and to try to locate pilot boat and report.
8. Crew put on standby.
Once P.O.B- to pilot flag.
Introduce pilot card D E S H
1. Inform the pilot about ship’s head, speed, Engine setting, Draught.
2. Inform him about the location of LSA for his use.
3. Discussion of passage plan with him and agreed with master: ind.
- Radio communication and reporting systems (ask him any Nay warning in the recent)
- Bridge watch and crew stby arrangements.
- Deployment and use of tugs (important).
- Berthing and anchoring arrangements. (on berth which lines to go, first arrangement, any obstructions, example crane etc on berth.
- Expected traffic during tansit
- Pilot change over arrangements if any.
- Fenders requirements. Vessel’s position to be plotted frequently and checked.
- Completed pilot card to be handed over to pilot.
- Showing him WHEEL HOUSE POSTER.
- Responsibilities within the Bridge team for the pilotage been defined and are they clearly understood.
- Languages: on bidge between ship pilot and shore.
- Look out arrangements explained to pilot.
- Crew stby arrangements explained to the pilot.
- Progress of the ship and execution of order (HELMSMAN, 00W and to pilot) to be monitored by master and OOW.
- Progress of the ship during the pilotage to be briefed to E.R and ship’s crew.
- Correct lights, flags, shapes being displayed.
- If action by pilot not satisfactory, I’ll inform master. If master is not on bridge I’ll discuss with pilot and safe clarification from him. If not satisfactory then I’ll take charge.
1. SIHP’S PARTICULARS: Name, CS, displacement, DWT, Year built, LOA, breadth, bulbous bow Y/N, draught, forward aft, midship’s, port anchor, stbd anchor, shackles.
2. LOADED/BALLAST MANIFOLD.
3. MR DRAUGHT.
4. ENGINE: Type, manpower RPM/pitch, loaded speed ballast speed.
5. STEERING: Rudder& Type, max, propeller ..cpp..Thrusters, bow power, stem power, steering
6. EQUIPMENT CHECKED: Ready for use- anchors, whistle, flags, x-band radar, s-band radar, speed log, echo sounder, ENPS, compass system, steering gear, rudder/rpm /rot indicators, VHF, mooring winches and lines.
7. EQUIPMENT OPERATIONAL DEFECTS.
8. OTHER IMPORTANT DETAILS.
9. MASTER’S NAME AND DATE.
SHIP TO SHOREMASTER/PILOT EXCHANGE
1. Ship identity.
2. Additional commun ication information.
3. Pilot boarding.
4. Ship particulars.
6. Manouvering details at current condition.
7. Main engine details.
8. Equipment defects relevant to safe navigation
9. Other important details (berthing restrictions)
SHORE TO SHIP PILOT/MASTER EXCHANGE
1. Ship requesing pilotage details.
2. Originatig authority.
3. Pilot boarding instructions.
4. Berth and tug details.
5. Local weather and sea conditions.
6. Details of the passage plan.
7. Regulations (VTS report, anchor/look out alter, max, all…. draught).
8. Other important details including, non hazards, ship movements.
1. Has the anchoring plan been prepared taking into account.
- speed reduction in ample time
- direction / strength of wind and current
- tidal stream when maneuverng at low speed
- need for adequate sea room particularly to seaward
- depth of water type of sea bed and scope of anchor cable required
2. Have the ER and anchor party been informed of the time of standby for, anchoring
3. Are the anchors ready for use
4. Are the light / shapes and sound signals for ready for use
5. Has the anchor position of the ship been reported to port authority
1. Determine and plot ships position on the appropriate chart ASAP
2. Take bearings of fixed navigation marks or readily identifiable shore oblects at frequent intervai to check that vsl remains securely at anchoring
3. Ensure proper look out maintained
4. Periodic inspection round to br made of ship
5. Meteorological and tidal conditions to be observed
6. Immediately notify Master and take necessary steps if vsl drags anchoring
7. Readiness of machinery and Mlengine as per Master instructions
8. Notify Master if visibility deteriorates
9. Proper lights /shapes / sound signals as per regulations to be made
10. Preventive Measures to prevent environmental pollution as per pollution regulations
11. All navigation equipments to be made use of to assist navigation, Ex., Echo sounder, radar, Met equipment, telegraph and lights/shapes etc.
12. Fire watch, anti pilferage watch, anti piracy watch, no smoking regulations, no unauthorized boards, no over board discharge, anchor cable to view at each tide changing time, VHF watch to be maintained
AFT STATION-(FWD Stations almost same)
1. Mooring arrangements from Master (first fine to clear or go? Etc.,)
2. berthing arrangements — along side — any obstructions, position ófbullards etc.,
3. Tug arrangements, How many which.side, our I their rope?
4. Fender arrangements and established communication
5. I Will go to AFT station will full PPE on and crews too, giving full consideration to the safety man / material and environmental pollution. Organize and instruct the crew on station
6. Scuppers to be locked
7. Area to be free of slippery spaces and obstruction
8. Adequate lighting
9. Mooring lines, heaving lines clear
10. Bow stopper on strong point at Bit.
11. Power on deck (winches)
12. Winches (capstan) checjced
13. First line, heaving line ready
14. Rat guard.
15. People / crew clear f the line, safety aspect important
16. Lines well clear of the propeller
17. One man heaving, one man coiling — together stopping and postioning
18. Safe distance from Jetty to be given to Master
NAVIGATION IN COSTAL WATERS:
1. Following considerations while preparing passage plan
1. Taking in advise /recornrnendation. from sailing directions
2. Ships draft in relation to vailable depth of water
3. Effect of Squat on under keelclearance in shallow water
4. Tides and currents
5. Wx particularly in areas more susceptible to poor visibility
6. Available navigational aids and their accuracy
7. Which positions fixing methods to be used
8. Day / Night time passing of danger points
9. Traffic likely to be encountered flow type and volume
10. Any requirements for TS / Routing Scheme
2. Monitoring of local / costal warnings bro2dcast
3. Is participation in area reporting systems recomthended including VTS
4. Is the ships position being fixed at regular intervals
5. Checking and testing of equipments at regular intervals
- Gyro / Magnetic compass
- Checking and testing Manual steering before entering costal water if the auto mode is in usage for a long time
- Performance of Radar and its Head line alignment
- Echo sounder
6. Is the OOW prepared to use the engines and call a lookout or Helms man to the bridge
7. Appropriate measure and arrangements to be made to safe guard the environment from any pollution andt thereby complying with applicale regulations of pollution
1. Sound General Emergency alarm
2. Call Master, inform E/ Room
3. Maneuver the ship to as to minimize the eflect of collision
4. Close water tight door and automatic fire doors
5. Maintain VHF watch on CH 16 and if appropriate on CH 13
6. Switch on deck lightings at night
7. Master passengers, if carried, at emergency station
8. Make ships position available to radio room / GMDSS station, satellite terminal and other automatic distress transmitters and update if necessary
9. Check for fire / damage
10. Sound and monitor the effected areas, bilges and tanks
11. Visually inspect compartment where possible
12. Minimize the ingress of water by using bilge / other pumps
13. Offer assistance to other ships
14. Make the hospital standby for any medical emergency
15. Broadcast, distress alert and message if the vessel is in grave and imminent danger and immediate assistance if required, otherwise broadcast Urgency message to the ships in the vicinity
SEEING VESSEL AGROUND — ACTION
1. Stop engine
2. All way off
3. Call Master, inform to Engine room
4. Check Echo sounder sounding
5. Tidal data — time of High / Low water, current etc., draught condition
6. Establish communication with the vessel and conform their status / condition if they require any assistance
7. Time of grounding
1. Sound General Emergency alarm
2. Call and inform Master (ASAP) E/R info., all dept. Info.,
3. Close water tight doors if fitted
4. Sound ballast and tanks, monitor continuously
5. Identify location of incoming water
6. Dudge the rate of ingress of water
7. check bilge pump for operation
8. Check auxflia pumps for bacp operation as required
9. Cut off all electrical power running through the area
10. Shore up area to stem water flow
11. Make ships position available to radio room? GMDSS station, satellite terminal and Other automafic distress transmitters and update asnecesary
12. Broadcast distress alert and message if the ship is in grave and imminent danger and immediate assistance is required otherwise broadcast an Urgency message to ships in the vicinity.
MAIN ENGINE or STEERING FAILURE
1. Inform Master
2. Prepare for anchoring if in shallow water
3. Exhibit NUC shapes / lights
4. Commence sound signaling
5. Kcep and good VHF watch
6. Track / monitor check vessels position, rate of drift
7. Check of any navigational hazards, approaching traffic
8. Change over from auto steering to Manual mode
9. Check for immediate WX conditions
10. Broadcast Urgency message to ships in the vicinity, if appropriate
11. Incase of Only Steering failure
- inform E Room
- engage emergency steering
- Take way off the ship
- Prepare engines for maneuvering
Taking the Ground intentionally
Cause: – to prevent imminent collision
- to prevent vsl from sinking when loss of water tight integrity is there due to collision / damage / holed etc
- to scrap yard for demolition, ex., age factor / cord etc.,
- Generallyat light ship conditions
- Minimum possible ballast, to maintain required trim, since beaching on gentle sloping beach
- Maximum high water incase of demolition
- Taking the wind and the current in favor of demolition
- Maximum engine power (rpm)
- When beaching for emergency above factors doesn’t count much but should be beached fast such that it can re float with tide when required. Pollution is important factor to consider
Q. Repairing team, Shore labor party joining the vessel and the vsl proceeding to anchor, duty as anOOW?
1. Check their names
2. Head count
3. Meet their head /supervisor
4. Seek documents
5. Recheck and confirm their identity
6. Allow them on board and take them to Master along with their documents
7. Will put their names in Muster list
8. To their designated cabins
9. Show them the location of their Life jackets, port tole exit, nearest fire extinguisher to cabin (with permission), nearest Emergency exit, Emergency alarm etc.
10. To the boat station
11. Familiarize with the drill and their duties
12. Demonstration of L.S.A
13. Instruct them not to touch equipments without permission
14. Not on-deck unnecessary
15. Not to enter any confined spaces
16. No hot work without permission
17. Show them their smoke room
18. Instruct them not to create polkition in any case. Not to through anything Over board
19. Familiarize them with the vessel
20. Instruct the ships crew keep witch on any unexpected doing by and inform duty officer regarding it immediately
21. Comply and keep safety of life at prior most.
22. Make surethey follow No Smoking regulations of vessel
23. Make sure they wear Personal Protective Equipment all the time
WHEEL HOUSE POSTER
1. Ships particulars: Name, C.S., GRT, NRT, Max Displ., DWT, Cw At Summer, Full Load Draft Etc…
2. Draft: at which the maneuvering data were observed, loaded, ballast
3. Steering particulars.
4. Propultion particulars
5. Anchor chain
6. Thrustct effect at trail concitions
7. Draft increase (loaded)
8. Turning circles
9. Man overboard rescue manoeuver
10. Deviation card
11. Muster list
12. Time zone chart
13. Load line zone
14. ME correction
RUNNING MOOR: Drop anchor, run up, drop second anchor, fall back
STRANDING MOOR: Drop anchor, fall back to tide, drop second anchor and heave back to first
OPEN MOOR: Lay second anchors on a spread ahead and tie to them both
BALTIC MOOR: Cable forwa& —insurance wire aft
MEDITERRANIAN MOOR: Both cable oëâh bôsndstem fasttoquay
An instrument used to indicate heading of the ship and to obtain bearings. Two type of compasses:
1. Gyro compass.
2. Magnetic compass.
COMPASS ERROR: The difference between in the direction indicated as north by the compass and the true north is compass error. In other words the difference between the compass north and the true north is the compass error.
Compass error named East or West:
Three methods determining compass error:
1. Azimuth: true bearing of the heavenly body calculated at a given time in GMT.
2. Amplitude: True bearing of the heavenly body calculated at a given time in GMT made when body is on the horizon, nsmg Or setting.
3. Transit: A bearing is one in which to conspicuous terrestrial object are in line, one in front of the other. Gyro compass: Advantages:
1. Its reference point is true north.
2. Can be connected to any amount of equipments which requires compass feeding.
1. Complicated mechanical device.
2. requires constant power supply.
Gyro compass error referred to high or low.
1. No mechanical moving parts.
2. Does not require electrical power.
Effected by two errors: deviation and variation.
By using transmitting magnetic compass(TMC). It is possible to feed magnetic compass to any number of equipment requires compass feeding.
Method of steering”(four methods):
1. Automatic(auto pilot)
2. Manual(by Helmsman)
3. Remote steering (with extended cord)
4. Emergency steering.
Off course alarm: This equipment maintains a continuous watch on the vessel’s course so that any break down of the Gyro compass or auto pilot is immediately brought to the notice of the OOW.
A three second delay is intioduced so that the alarm is not sounded by momentary contact during violent motion of vessel in heavy weather.
SPEED MEASURING DEVICE:
1. The stream log
2. Dynamic pressure log.
3. Impeller log.
4. Electromagnetic log.
5. Doppler log.
Correction of deviation: Following four provisions are provided to reduce the compass error (it can not be totally eliminated)
1. Flinders bar.
2. Spheres (two numbers placed port and stbd).
3. Heeling error magnets.
4. Horizontal magnets- they compensate for the forward and aft and athwart ships components of the Semi permanent magnetism.
5. PEWRUS: It is an alternative to azimuth mirror. It enables the navigator to obtain bearings of shore object particularly when the line of sight of the azimuth mirror on the standard compass is obscured.
1. Used for the purpose of navigation.
2. Only one instrument shows / record GMT.
3. To be stowed in a place free-of vibration and maintained at. regular and even temperature.
4. Ideal place is chart room or wheel house.
5. Two-day chronometer should be wound daily at the same time.
6. Winding key known as “tipsy key”.
7. Full wound achieved by after 7 wounds.
8. Never turn the hands of chronometer in anticlockwise & direction.
9. After starting it should be rated against a time signal on a daily basis.
10. All chronometer errors should be recorded in chronometer error book.
1. Ensure all personnl are wearing the correct PPE.
2. Check and maintain good communication at all times with bridge and obtain permission to go stations.
3. Obtain power on deck.
4. Ensure adequate lighting is required on mooring decks.
5. An experienced winch operator must be used at all times and winches must be conditionally tended.
6. Prepare winches, remove covers, put into gear and test operation.
7. Unstow, wires, ropes, stoppers, fenders, heaving lines, gant lines, messengers, rat guards etc make ready for use.
8. Never stand in the bight of a rope and always maintain a position of safety.
9. Be aware of the dangers of back-ash if a man made fiber rope parts.
10. Ensure sufficient number of men are available at each end of the vessel duiing mooring operations.
11. Find out mooring plan from master.
12. Make own plan on how to propose to achieve masters plan.
13. Brief all persons about mooring plan to make sure that they fully understand it.
14. Wires must not be used directly from a fixed real. It should be flaked out before use.
15. Checks all roll on and fair leads for dangers and smooth operation to avoid rope damaging.
16. Leads must not be too sharp, in case of wires a snatch block can be used to impose the lead.
17. Never put rope and wire on same bit / lead together. Do not put eye of rope or wire on the bit.
18. Put wires as per DTP approved manner.
19. Two men on barrel, one handling. one coiling down.
20. Never handle rope and winch control at same time.
The purpose of ship routin is to imprdve the safety of navigation in concerning areas and in areas where the density of traffic is great or where the freeddm of movement of shipping Inhibited by restricted sea room, the existence of obstruction to navigation, limited depth or unfavorable meteorological conditions.
Following are the matters related to ship routing:
1. Routing system
3. Traffic separation zone or line
4. Traffic line
5. Round about
6. Inshore traffic zone
7. Two way route
8. Recommended track
9. Deep water route
10. Precautionary area
1l. Area to be avoided
12. Established direction of traffic flow
13. Recommended direction of traffic flow
This turn is needed when there is no sufficient sea room and tighter turn will required. This is achieved by means of one of the ship’s anchor.
1. Frequently practiced with tidal stream from stern.
2. speed of vessel to be reduced so that she can make steerage way.
3. Let go either port or stbd anchor at short stay.
4. allow the cable to lead aft dragging the anchor along the bottom.
5. The cable will act as a spring reducing headway counting the bow towards the side of anchor dropped.
6. Maximum helm and engine power to bring vessel through 180 degrees where to apply the break is very important.
The anchor party is briefed about it before hand.
GRAIN REGULATIONS (IMO 240 E) (MSN-1253)
GRAINS: Wheat, corn, rice, pulses, seeds, oats etc.
Minimum stability requirement:
1. No more thaii 12 degree list after assumed shift of grain. Full cornpartment-grain shift-15degree, partly filled compartment-25 degree grain shift.
2. Initial GM of 0.3 m.
3. Upright before sailing.
4. A minimum residual stability as specified
Angle of flooding 40 degree, 0.075 m radius.
Every ship intended to load garain should have:
1. Document of authorization.
2. Grain loading manual.
3. International code for the safe carriage of grain-IMO 240 E
Also refer SOLAS annex 6 regulation 9.
-Bodily sinkage of a vessel when underway and m/w
- Most noticeable in shallow water.
- Its value will vary proportionally to the square of the speed of the vessel.
- Forward draft increases and trim changes when m/w through water
- Steering becomes critical.
- Speed of the vessel has the strongest influence on the amount of squat.
Interaction is the reaction of the ship’s hull to pressure exerted on.its under water volume.
Interaction occurs in following cases:
2. Between two vessels on reciprocal courses.
3. Between a bank and the vessel.
4. Between vessel’s hull and sea bed in shallow waters.
5. In narrow channel- between a moored vessel and passing vessel.
TURNING SHORT ROUND CIRCLE
Right hand propeller vessel will turn more easily to stbd than to port.
1. Start from port side of the channel to have maximum head reach movement.
2. Rudder “hard a stbd”, engines “ahead”, do not allow vessel to gather much head way.
3. Rudder “mid ship”, engine “astern”.
4. Stem way is gathered, bow will come to stbd, port quarter will move in opposition owing to “transverse thrust”, “stop engine”.
5. Rudder “stbd”, engines “a head”.
Prior taking bunkers:
1. Seal up all deck’s scuppers to prevent spillage over side.
2. Establish a second means of access to the vessel incase of emergency.
3. Display appropriate signal “B” flag or all round red light.
4. Post additional “no smoking”, signs in deck areas.
5. Establish fill fire and spillage precautions close to the manifold and ensure immediate readinessand availability.
6. Have the contact numbers of all the relevant parties ready for use.
7. Set up and test communications between the pumping stations the manifold and the reception personnel monitoring the delivery.
8. Make sure adequte drip trays are positioned under flanges and in the way of the manifold.
9. Rig five wires fore and aft if appropiiate. Make fire extension near manifold (foam type)
10. Have dispersal chemical readily available for use on board, the vessel in the event of spillage.
11. Detail sufficient man power on deck and in the engine room to carry out the operation correctly, especially when topping off.
12. Assist engineers in this operation.
13. Make sure if barge along side fender arrangements are okay, their moorings taken care of, their crew not allowed in all anti piracy__.
PREPARATION FOR ANCHORING
1. Ensure that every body is with personal protective equipment.
2. Get the right tools for the job.
3. Establish communication with bridge and ask permission to go forward.
4. Obtain power on deck.
5. Check the wind lass brake is fully secured.
6. Clear Hawse pipe.
7. Clear sparling pipe.
8. Clear devil’s claw.
9. Unlash cable in chain locker.
10. Remove all pisle cable lashings.
11. Put wind lass into gent.
12. Inform bridge “anchor cleared away”
13. When permission given to “walk back to anchor” check over side of VSL to ensure it is safe to do so.
14. Relax brake and walk out the anchor under power to the required depth.
15. Put the brake back on.
16. Take the wind lass out of gear.
17. Relax brake when ordered to do so.
18. Keep a constant check on the amount of cable being paid out as you will have to ease the break back on to slow down the cables movement. Keep the bridge informed about the amount of cable on deck.
19. Once the anchor is on the seabed then the ship is at anchor and the anchor ball to be displayed.
20. Once the required amount of cable is achieved, put the brake back on fully close the bow stopper and inform bridge.
21. Keep the bridge informed as to howthe cable is leading and whether any wt on the cable or if any sign of the cable dragging.
22. Once the anchor is said to be “brought up” again inform bridge.
23. When permission is given to stand down, ensure all FWD is adequately secured then inform the bridge you are standing down FWD and making your way aft.
1. Ensure that all personnel wearing protective clothing.
2. Get the right tools for the job
3. Establish the communication with bridge and get permission to go Fwd
4. Obtain power on deck and inform bridge that you are standing by Fwd
5. Cheek windlass brake is on
6. Put windlass into gear
7. Remove Bow stopper / lashings
8. Open hose pipe water (deck water)
9. When ordered to weigh anchor, remove brake and commence heaving.
10. Keep the bridge informed of how the cable in length and amount of cable
11. When the anchor is straight up and down then the anchor has been lifted off the bottom, inform Bridge Anchor
12. Remove anchor ball
13. Continue to heave all the way checking that anchor and cable are not fouled.
14. Inform to bridge anchor sighted and clear
15. Once the anchor is stowed position, then put the brake badk on and close the bow stopper
16. Take the windlass out of gear
17. Turn off the power and water
GENERAL ARRANGEMENT PLAN
The general anangement is presented Ifl the form of Side View and deck by deck plan views. It shows the, principal dimensions of the ship i.e., LOA, LP, Molded dimensions, summer draft etc.
2. Position qftanlcs, VPB, Cargo, Ballast, E/R etc
3. Position of fair leads
4. Outside view of accommodation arrangements
5. Frames—numbered along the bottom stating from aft perpendicular
6. Position of Nay Lights, deck flood lights, aerials and Halyards.
7. Position of holds, Mast houses etc.
Plan View: Accommodation, E/R, Main deck
Static Forces: Occurs due to differences in weight and support in ship.
Dynamic Forces: Wave bending causing alterations in bending of hull. Hogging and Sagging.
Longitudinal Bending: Uneven distribution of loads onboard
Transverse Bending: Forces due to weight of ships structure, fuel, water, cargo