Master Section 3

SAFETY OFFICIAL


SAFETY OFFICER:

On sea-going ship on which more five workers are employed the company required to appoint a safety officer the master must recorded the appointment of a safety officer- this should be in the official log book.  Although not prohibited by regulations the appointment if master as the safety officer is not generally advisable. Appointment as safety officer should be avoided to whom the master has delighted the task of given medical treatment. This is because one of the duties of the safety officer is to investigate incidents, and he would not be able to give proper attention to this function while providing medical treatment for causalities

DUTIES OF AFETY OFFICER:

  • Safety officer will carry statutory responsibilities for health and safety as per code of safe working practices and as per companies policy.
  • The safety officer’s role should be a positive one, seeking to initiate or develop safety measures before an incident rather afterwards.
  • To improve consciousness among the crew.
  • The safety officer has a duty to investigate notifiable accidents or dangerous occurrences affecting persons on board ship or during access, as well as potential hazards to health and safety and any reasonable complaints made by any personnel.
  • The regulation require safety officer to carry out health and safety inspection of each accessible part of the ship at least once every three months, or more frequently if there have been substantial changes in the condition of work.
  • The safety officer has a duty to stop any work which reasonably believes may cause a serious accident and immediately inform master except when emergency action to safeguard life or the ship is being taken.
  • To make representation and recommendation to the master and employer about deficiencies relating to health and safety
  • To keep record of all accidents and dangerous occurrences.

SAFETY REPRESENTATIVES:

On every ship on which more than five workers are employed, the company must make arrangement for the election of the safety representatives. The regulations specify that no safety representative may have less than 2 years consecutive sea services since attaining the age of 18

The number of safety rep. Who should be elected will vary to the size of a crew. The following rations recommended

6 – 15 crew                                                            1 elected by off. and ratings together
16 + crew                                                               1 elected by off. and 1 by ratings
Over 30                                                                  1 elected by off and 3 by the ratings (i.e. 1 from each deck, eng. and catering departments, general purpose ratings being included in the deck department)

The master must record the election or appointment of very safety representative in writing – this should be either in the official log book or in the minutes of safety committee meeting.

Safety reps should:

  • put forward their views and recommendations in affirm but reasonable and helpful manner
  • be sure of the fact
  • be aware of the legal position
  • be conscious of what is reasonably practicable

SAFETY COMMITTEE:

Once safety rep. have been elected, the company must appoint a safety committee. The committee must be chaired by master.

It is desirable that there should be a safety committee on every ship more than five workers, although the statutory requirement only exists on those ships where safety rep. are elected.

The master record the appointment of a safety committee in writing- this should be in the OLB or minutes of the committee meetings.

It is preferable to appointment as secretary someone other than a safety official, as officials need to concentrate on the discussion rather than on recording with.

Safety committee have a meeting generally on every 4-6 weeks.

PURPOSES :

  1. make the ship a better working place
  2. finding of the risk assessment and measured for protection in place
  3. ant other factor affecting the health and safety of those working on ship
  4. details of fire fighting, fast aid and other emergency processers.

DUTIES OF SAFETY COMMITTEE:

  • to use its best endeavours to ensure the COSWP is complied with
  • to improve the standard of safety consciousness among the crew
  • to make representation /recommendation on the crew’s behalf on health and safety matters
  • to inspect SO’s record
  • to ensure observance and take appropriate action concerning any occupational health and safety matters.

OIL RECORD BOOK (ORB)

Every non tanker of 400GRT and above, and every tanker of 150 GRT and above must have ORB part I ( machinery space operation ). All tankers of 150 GRT and above must have ORB part II ( cargo/Ballast operation ) The ORB must be preserved for 3 years after last has been made. The ORB must be completed on each occasion, on tanks to tank basis if appropriate, Entries must be fully recorded without delay and each completed entries must be sign by the officer in charge of the operations concerned. Each completed page sign by the Master. Entries include-any movement of oil in to ship, within ship and out of ship.

Entries in ORB-Part I Machinery space Operation-All Ship:

  • Ballasting or cleaning of fuel oil tanks
  • Discharging of dirty Ballast or clean water from fuel oil tanks
  • Collection and disposal of oil residue (sludge)
  • Non-automatic discharge over board or disposal otherwise of bilge water which has accumulate in machinery space.
  • Automatic discharge over board or disposal otherwise of bilge water which has accumulate in machinery space.
  • Condition of oil discharge monitoring and control system.
  • Accidental or other exceptional discharge.
  • Bunkering fuel or bulk in lubricating oil.
  • Additional operational procedure or general remarks.

Entries in ORB-Part II- Cargo/Ballast Operation-Tankers:

  • Loading of oil cargo
  • Unloaded of oil cargo
  • Internal transfer of oil during the voyage
  • Crude oil washing ( COW tankers only )
  • Cleaning of cargo tanks
  • Ballasting of cargo tanks.
  • Discharging Dirty ballast.
  • Discharging clean ballast contained in the Cargo tanks
  • Ballasting of dedicated clean ballast tank.( CBT tankers only )
  • Discharging of ballast from clean ballast tank. ( CBT tankers only )
  • Discharge of water from slop tanks in to sea.
  • Disposal of residual and oily mixture no otherwise required
  • Condition of oil discharge monitoring and control system.
  • Accidental or other exceptional discharge.
  • Additional operational procedure or general remarks.

For vessel engaged in specific trade

  • Loading of ballast water.
  • Re-allocation of ballast water within the ship
  • Ballast water discharged to reception facility.

REGULATIONS GOVERNING DISCHARGER OF OIL

Machinery space:

  • The ship not within a special area.
  • The ship is proceeding enroute
  • The one of the effluent without dilution does no exceed 15ppm.
  • The ship has in operational:

400 to 10,000GRT – an oil filtering equipment.

Above 10,000 GRT – an oil filtering equipment and with arrangement for alarm and automatic stopping any discharge of mixture when the oil content of effluent exceed 15ppm.

Tanker:

  • The tankers is proceeding on a voyage
  • The tanker is not within a special area.
  • The tanker is more than 50 miles from nearest land
  • The instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content is not more then 30 litres per nautical mile.
  • The total quantity of discharge is not greater then 1/30,000 of the total quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a part
  • The tanker has in operation an oil discharge monitoring and control system and slop tank arrangement.

(Clean ballast and processed bilge water ( Max 15ppm) can be discharged within a special area)

Certification:

International Oil pollution prevention Certificate (IOPP).

Required by non-tanker of 400 GRT or more and tankers of 150 GRT or more

Validity           5years. Can be extended 5 months.

Issued by MCA (flag state admin.) or Classification society. Surveys may be carried out by classification society on behalf of MCA. Initial survey must be done by MCA.

Surveys required:

  • Initial
  • Annual
  • Intermediate
  • Periodic/Renewal

Must be accompanied by “record of construction and equipment”

UKOPP:

As above for UK ship on domestic voyages between ports and terminals in the UK.

Oil Pollution Insurance Certificate (OPIC)

Issued by MCA.

Valid for 1 year and cannot be expended

Required by ships carrying more then 2000 tonnes of persistent oil in bulk as cargo.

No surveys required (only proof of insurance cover).

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SHIPBOARD OIL POLLUTION EMERGENCY PLAN (SOPEP) :

Every non-tanker of 400 CRT and above and every taker of 15 GRT and above must have a SOPEP in the form a manual.

SOPEP is the form a manual.

SOPEP is the summarise flow of chart or checklist to guide the master through the various action and decisions required in responding to an incident. It should assist the ships crew when dealing with an accidental discharge of oil into the sea. Its primary purpose is to set in motion the necessary actions to stop or minimise the discharge and to reduce its effects on the marine environment.

SOPEP is required by regulation 26 of annex 1 of International regulation for prevention of pollution from ship, 1973. Plan must be approved in accordance with regulation.

The guidelines are comprised of primary section:

  1. Introduction.
  2. Mandatory provision.
  3. Non mandatory provision.
  4. Introduction:

Provide general over view of the subject matter and introduce the reader to basic concept of the guidelines. The plan are expected to be develop by them.

  1. Mandatory provision.

To ensure that regulation 26 of annex 1 are met.

  1. Non-Mandatory provision.

Provide other information of the plan. Not required by the regulation. May be required by the local port visited by the ship. It provide additional assistance to the Master when responding in an emergency situation. Also provided on guideline on updating and exercising of the plan.

Plan must be:

  1. Realistic, practical and easy to use.
  2. Understood by ship personnel and shore personnel.
  3. Evaluated, reviewed updated regularly.

Mandatory provision:

  1. Procedure to be following by the master or other person having the charge of the v/I to report an oil pollution incident.
  2. List of authorities person to be contacted in the event of an oil pollution incident.
  3. A details description of action to be taken immediately by persons onboard to reduce or control the discharge of oil following the incident.
  4. Procedure and point of contact on the ship for co-ordinating ship board activities with national and local authorities in combating the pollution.

Coastal state report:

Convention require that the nearest costal state should be notified of actual or probable discharge. This required to ensure that costal state are informed without delay of any incident giving rising of pollution, or threat of pollution of marine environment, as well as of assistance and salvage measures, so that appropriate action may be taken.

Actual discharge:

  1. A discharge of oil due to damage to the ship or its equipment or for purpose of securing the safety of ship or salving lift at sea.

Or

  1. Discharge during operation of the quantity or instantaneous rate permitted under the present convention.

Probable discharge:

plan should give the master, guidance to evaluate a situation which, not involving actual discharge, would qualify as a probable discharge and thus report.

Report should be made in the following factors:

  1. Nature of damage, failure or breakdown of ship, machinery equipment,
  2. Ship location and proximity of land or other navigational hazards.
  3. Traffic density.

List of person to be contact:

  1. Costal state control.
  2. Port state control.
  3. Ship interest contacts.

Guideline to step to control discharge:

  1. Operational spills
  2. Pipe line leakage.
  3. Hull leakage.
  4. Tank overflow.

SOPEP-SUMMARY FLOW CHART:

DISCHARGE OF Probable or actual
ASSESSMENT OF THE NATURE OF INCIDENT
ACTION REQUIRED

*       Alert crew members

*       Identify spill source

*       Spill assessment

REPORTING ACTION TO CONTROL DISCHARGE
By Master and/ or designated crew member threat to marine environment Measure to minimise the escape of oil
WHEN TO REPORT

All probable and actual spills

HOW TO REPORT

*       By quickest means to coastal radio station

*       Designated ship movement reporting station or

*       Rescue Co-ordination (at sea)

*       By quickest available means to local authorities

WHO TO CONTACT

*       Nearest coastal State

*       Harbour and terminal operators (in port)

*       Ship owner’s manager/P & I insure

*       Head charterer: cargo owner

*       Refer to contact lists

WHAT TO REPORT

*       Initial report

*       Follow-up reports

*       Characteristics of oil spilled

*       Cargo/ballast/bunker dispositions

*       Weather and sea conditions

*       Slick movement

*       Assistance required

–       Lightering capacity

–       Mechanical strike team

–       Chemical dispersant / degreasnt

NAVIGATIONAL

MEASURES

*       Alter course/position / or and  speed

*       Change if list and/or trim

*       Anchoring

*       Setting aground

*       Initiate towage

*        Assess safe Haven requirements

*       Weather/tide/swell forecasting

*       Slick monitoring

*       Record of events & Communications taken

SEAMANSHIP

MEASURES

*       Safety assessment and precaution

*       Advice on priority preventative measures

*       Damage stability & stress consideration

*       Ballasting / deballasting

*        Internal cargo transfer operations

*       Emerg’cy ship to  ship transfer of cargo &/or bunker

*       Set up shipboard response for:

–       Leak sealing

–       Fire fighting

–       Handling of shipboard response equipment (if avail)-

–       etc.

STEPS TO INITIATE EXTERNAL RESPONSE

*       Refer to coastal Port State listings for local assistance

*       Refer to ship interest contact list

*       External clean-up resources required

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Q:        GARBAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN.

Every ship of 400GRT or more, and every ship certified to carry 15 persons or more shall carry a GMP.It should be written in working language of crew and must be in accordance with IMO guidelines. Each GMP will be individual to a particular ship.

It must include written procedure for.

n  Designated person in charge of carrying out the plan

n  Procedure for collection garbage

n  Procedure for separating garbage

n  Procedure for processing garbage

n  Procedure for disposing garbage

GARBAGE RECORD BOOK

Every ship of 400GTR or above, every ship certified to carry 15 persons or more engaged in voyage to port or offshore terminals under jurisdiction of other parties to the convention must maintain a GRB.

Entries can be made both in the official language of the flag state administration and English or French. Each entries shall be signed by the officer authorising the operation. Each completed page signed by the Master. It must be preserved for 2 years after the date of last entry.

Master shall obtain receipt from the operator or the port reception facilities, or from the master of the ship receiving the garbage. The receipts or certificates must be kept onboard the ship with GRB for 2 years.

Columns in the GRB include:

  • Date/time
  • Position of the ship
  • Estimated amount discharge into sea
  • Estimated amount discharge to reception facilities
  • Estimated amount incinerated
  • Certification/Signature.

For the purpose of the GRB, garbage is grouped in to categories, e.g.

  1. Plastics
  2. Floating dunnage, lining or packing material
  3. Ground down paper products, rags. Metal, bottles, crockery, etc.
  4. Unground paper products, rags, Metal, bottles, crockery, etc.
  5. Food waste
  6. Incinerated ash.

PLACARDS (GAEBAGE)

Every ship of 12m or more in length overall shall display placards which notify the crew and passengers of the disposal requirements. These should be official language of the flag state administration.

GARBAGE DISPOPASL REGULATIONS

Outside special area:

  • No plastic may be disposed off anywhere
  • Dunnage, lining and packing materials which will float may be disposed off 25 nautical miles or more from the nearest land
  • Unground or uncomminuted food waste and all other unground or uncomminuted garbage including paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery and similar refuse may be disposed off 12 nautical miles or more from the nearest land.
  • Ground or comminuted food waste and all other ground or comminuted garbage including paper products, rags, metal, bottles, crockery and similar refuse may be disposed off 3 nautical miles or more from the nearest land.

Inside special areas:

  • No garbage other than food waste may be disposed off
  • Food waste may be disposed off, without grinding or comminution, only where disposed is as far as practicable, and no case les than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land
  • In wider Caribbean Region, food waste comminute or ground may be disposed off 3 nautical miles or more from the nearest land

Within 500m of fixed or floating platforms:

  • The disposed into the sea of any garbage from a ship which is a fixed or floating platform engaged in exploration, exploration and associated offshore processing of seabed mineral resource, or from any ships alongside or within 500m of such a platform, is prohibited provided that food waste which have been comminuted or ground may be disposed off into sea from such platform or ship if the platform in the question is more then 12 nautical miles from the nearest land.

(comminuted means able to pass through 25mm opening of a screen.)

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COMPASS

Q: Why do you correct a compass?

A: As because the compass is most reliable equipment, which need not any power. In case of gyro failure  compass can be used to steer the vessel for reach the next pot.

Q: Order of placing correctors?

A: The correct order of placing the correctors is as follows.

  1. Flinder’s Bar

The Flinder’s Bar acts a bit like a sphere forward of the compass bowl. It also affects heeling error, and can be magnetised with the fore and aft and the athwartships magnets. The heeling error magnets often induce poles in the top of the flinder’s bar, causing coefficient Permanent

B.     It is important that the Flinder’s Bar is positioned before the spheres, and all the permanent magnets.

  1. Spheres

The spheres cause (and help to correct) heeling error and are affected by the permanent magnets. It is important that the spheres are positioned before the permanent corrector magnets are finally placed.

All soft correctors should be in position before final adjustment of the permanent corrector magnets.

  1. Heeling error magnet causes Coefficient Permanent B by including the Flinder’s Bar, so it is important that the heeling error magnet is positioned before the horizontal fore and aft corrector magnets.

4 & 5. The fore aft magnets and the athwart ship magnets are done last and can in any other. It is probably best to correct the larger of the two coefficients first which steadies the card and makes the other correction easier to do. Coefficient B is usually the larger so the fore and aft magnet is usually positioned before the athwart ship corrector magnet.

Q: When will you adjust compass?

A: Magnets compass should be adjusted when:

a)      they  are first  installed;

b)      they become unreliable;

c)      the ship undergoes; structure repairs or alteration that could affect its permanent and include magnetism.

d)      Electric or magnetic equipment close to the compass is added, removed or altered; or deviations has not been maintained, or the recorded deviations are excessive or when the compass shown physical defects.

Q:   Ship laid up for what will you check before a swing?

A:   Before swing the v/I I will check:

  1. The vessel must be upright and all derrick, cranes, boats, etc. Should be in the seagoing position.
  2. Test the compass for friction by deflecting it slightly with a magnets and see that it returns to  its original position, without sticking. This is must done by taking the bolw ashore.
  3. Check the lubber line for fore and aft accuracy
  4. Check the accuracy of the azimuth mirror
  5. All movable gear near the compass must be in the seagoing position. No loose metal should be near the compass. If spare corrector magnets are being used, they must be placed as far away from the compass as is reasonably possible.
  6. No ship within the 3 cables
  7. Soft iron correctors should be tested for retained magnetism by rotating the sphere and end of ending the top pieces of flinders bar. Residual magnetism may be removed by annealing ( heating to 700c and cooling slowly ).

Q:  What happened to compass once it is corrected?

A:  It becomes more reliable.

Q: You have join a ship, where you will get information regarding compass and correctors?

A:  Deviation card.

Q:  Why wooden places under flinders bar?

A:  To keep the top of the flinders bar above the level of the compass magnet.

Q:  What is VFI? How to use it?

A:

Q:  What would you expect the compass adjuster to check?

A:

Q: When flinder’sbar up set?

A:

Q:  How will you checked flinder’s bar and kelvins ball become a semi permanent magnets?

A:

Q:  what is the normal position of kelvine’s balla?

A:  In the centre of the track, equidistant from the compass bowl on either side.

Q:  What is directive force?

A:

Q:  when to lower and rise the heeling error bucket?

A:

Q:  what is ship multiplier?

A:  Difference between directional force at ship with spheres and directional force ashore is called ships multiplier ()

Q:  Your Company is going to take over a new ship, there are lot of electronic equipment to be fitted in the brigade, how you make sure this equipment are correctly positioned?

A:  Check the compass is going to take over a new ship, there are lot of electronic equipment to be fitted  in the bridge, how you make sure this equipment are correctly positioned?

A:  check the compass safe distance on each equipment, place as far away but not less than the quoted safe distance by maker’s.

Q:  How these equipment are going to influence the compass?

A:  By creating a magnetic field.

Q:  Which certificate covers compass?

A:  Safety Equipment Certificate (makers name, Serial no. etc.)

Q:  How do you find magnetic heading after taking bearing from 8 heading?

A:  Take the bearing from 8 different heading (N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW) add them together then divided 8.

Q:  How do you put corrector for adjusting coeff. B and C

A:        For Coefficient           +B, Corrector red to the Fwd.

For Coefficient           -B, Corrector blue to the Fwd.

For Coefficient           +C, Corrector red to the starboard.

For Coefficient           -C, Corrector red to the starboard.

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Q.1:  What ship certificate would you expect to find on:

a) a 1590 GRT mini-bulker?

b) a 900 GRT oil-rig supply vessel carrying bulk brine?

c) a 15000 DWT chemical tanker?

d) a 200000 DWT crude oil tanker  built in 1980 ?

e) a large cruise liner?

A:      Common:

COR, SCC, SEC, SRC, IOPPC, ILLC, ITC, DOC, SMC, SMD.

a)      Same as common

b)      International pollution prevention cet, for the carriage of noxious liquid substance in bulk

c)      COF

d)      OPIC

e)      COR,PSSC,IOPPC,ILLC,ITC,DOC,SMC,SMD

Q.2 :

a) In what circumstances must you send a navigating warning?

b) Who must you to address to?

c) By what means must you transmit it?

A:

a)      1. Dangerous Ice

2. Dangerous direct or other direct danger to navigation.

3. Tropical storm.

4. Subfreezing air temperature plus gale force winds causing severe ice accretion.

5. Wind > force 10 for which have no warning.

b)      To ships in the vicinity and nearest CRS.

c)      By every means of ship communication system.

Q.3:  What is the different between an IMO-adopted Traffic Separation Scheme?

A:      IMO-approved schemes are adopted. They come into force 6 months after adoption. Rules for navigation in these schemes are as per COLREG rule 10. Unapproved schemes may lie totally in national waters and unadopted. Rules for navigation in these schemes may differ from rule 10.

Q.4:

a)      Where do you find a list of all TSS, both adopted and unadopted?

b)      How can you ensure that this list is up-to-date?

c)      In what other publication is information published about TSS?

A.

a)      Annual Notice NO.17 in the annual summery of Notice to Mariners. Unadopted scheme are marked in the list within asterisk.

b)      By correcting it from Weekly notice to Mariners

c)      Rule 10; Mariner’s Handbook; Ship’ routing chart (e.g. 5500); Annual Summery of Notice to Mariners; Pilot Books; Weekly Notice to Mariners.

Q.5:   After abandoning your ship during a major fire, and having been rescued by another ship, what action you would take?

A:      I would request the rescuing ship’s master to cancel the May day and send a navigational warning (e.g. if may ship was still burning and NUC). I would make tally of survivors and report to the coastguard. I would report to owners and MAIB a.s.a.p. (through the coastguard if necessary) I would request owners to notify the agent at the original port of destination, as well as characters and receivers. I would inform the P & I club’s correspondent at the port where the rescuing ship takes the survivors. I would prepare reports for owners and MAIB. (The P & I club and characters may also want copies.)

Q.6:   What action would you take if, on joining a ship that was not due for its Safety Equipment survey for another six months, you found that some aspect of the lifesaving or fire fighting appliance were not in good order?

A:      Either make good the defects before sailing or apply to MCA for a general inspection and get MCA’s written approval to sail. Unless defects are serious enough to warrant detention, MCA will probable issue of latter of compliance.

Q.7:  When the must the steering gears be tested?

A:      The master must, within 12 hours before departure of the ship, cause the steering gear to be checked and tested so as to ensure that it is working satisfactorily.

In the case of ship regularly making more then one voyage a week to or from the same port be check and test of the steering gear need only be made once in that week unless a part of the steering gear or its controlsystem has been eliminated or changed since the last test.

Emergency steering gear must be tested at least every 3 months.

Q.8:   While on 1-year Time Charter, running between the Persian Gulf and Japan, your Safety Equipment Certificate becomes due for renewal in one month’s time. What action would you take?

A:

  1. Inform owner to arrange surveyor.
  2. Keep everything presentable to the surveyor.
  3. Inform agent.

Q.9:

a)      What purpose of an OPIC certificate?

b)      When it is to be produce by master?

c)      How is an OPIC certificate obtain?

A:        a)     To certify that there is in force is in respect of the ship a policy of insurance or other financial security satisfying  the requirements of Article VII of the international Convention on Civil liability for Oil Pollution Damage 1969 (the CLC).

b)     On arrival at and departure from any port or terminal, to Customs (in UK) or any state or harbour official requesting it.

c)         By application of he owners to MCA London Regional Marine Office (Orpington, Kent), enclosing documentary proof that an insurance policy exists. Proof is normally shown by a blue certificate issued by the owners P&I club.

Q.10:     What OLB entry must be made on the change of Master?

A:           1. The off-going Master should make an entry (Entry no.4) in the narrative section to the effect that he has delivered to me (in coming master) all documents relating to the ship and the crew, and both he and I would sign this entry.

2. I would add my name and certificate number to the list on the front cover.

Q.11:  Who would you inform after:

a)      spilling bunkers in the foreign port?

b)      Sustaining collision damage at sea in way of a bunker flue tank?

A:

a)      Coastguard ; Agent ; owner ; P & I club ; MAIB ; Port authority.

b)       Coastguard : Owner ; P & I club ; MAIB ; Classification society ; Charterer.

Q.12:   What are the contents of an International Tonnage Certificate?

A:       Ship’s particulars; Length; breadth and Moulded depth; Gross tonnage and net tonnage.

Q:        What survey or inspections are required by Load line legislation?

A:

  1. Initial
  2. Annual
  3. Intermediate
  4. Periodic

Q.14:     What items come into the scope of the load line periodic inspection?

A:

  1. Load line mark
  2. Ship’s structures and fitting for water tight integrity (hatch way, side opening, vents, air pipe, freeing ports)
  3. Crew protection.

Q.14:      What is a classification society has been defined as an independent, non-profit distributing organisation which develops and updates adequate publish rule; regulations and standards for the safe design, construction and periodical maintenance of ship which are capable of trading internationally, and implements these on a world wide basis using its own exclusive staff.

Q.16:    What is the purpose of ship classification?

A:      It is requirements of fill hull and machinery insurance, P & I clubs, ships financiers and cargo insurers. It also useful in sale and purchase

Q.17:  What are you legal obligations on receiving a May Day signal from a nearby ship?

A:        Acknowledge received of massage and proceed with all speed for assistance, ad if possible inform parties and SMC.

Q.18:  a) when are released from obligation?

b) When OLB entries must be made concerning distress signal?

A:    a)

  1. On learning that my vessel is not requisitioned and or more ship have been requisitioned and are complying with the requisition.
  2. Being infirmed by the persons in distress or by the search and rescue service or by the master of another ship which has reached such persons that assistance is no longer necessary.

b)

Q.19:  What SOLAS certificate would you expect to find on your next shop?

A:

  1. PSSC.
  2. SCC.
  3. SEC.
  4. SRC.

Q.20:  what action would you take regarding who was drunk?

a)      On duty?

b)      Off duty?

A:    a) Ensure the safety of the ship, personnel and the seaman himself. Remove him from the duty and substitute another. Sober him up. Discipline him in accordance with the MN Code Conduct, if applicable.(was he drunk enough to jeopardize safety of ship and personnel?)                                                                                                                                                    The offence may justify dismissal.

b) ensure safety of the ship, personnel and seaman himself. If no threat to safety, take no action beyond an informal caution unless company’s charterer’s or ship’s rule prohibit alcohol. Perhaps give a D & A test before he starts work again.

Q.21:

a)      Under what circumstance would you note of protest?

b)      How would you note of protest?

c)      What is meant by ‘extending Protest?

A:     a) After every case of General Average; after wind and/or sea conditions have been encountered which may have damage car cargo; after win and/or sea, conditions have been encountered which caused failure to make a cancelling date; after cargo is shipped in a condition likely to deteriorate during  the forthcoming voyage ( also, Bs/L should be appropriately claused after consultation of with the shipper and P & I correspondent); after the ship has been damaged from any cause; after serious breach of the C/P by the charterer or his agent (e.g. under delay, refusal to load, cargo not a sort allowed by the C/P, refusal to pay demurrage, refusal to accept Bs/L after signing because of clausing by master, sending vessel to an unsafe port, etc.); after the consignee fails to discharge or take delivery of the cargo or fails to pay freight.

b)      Go to notary public, or other appropriate person with one or more witnesses from the crew who have knowledge of the facts. Take Official log book, deck; log and all other relevant information surrounding the event being protested. Make swarm statement before notary, who entries it register of protests. Obtain at least 3 certified copies of protest (owners, adjuster and ship’s file). Pay fee (master’ disbursement) and obtain receipt.

c)

  • Since it is often impossible to ascertain the full extent of loss or damage at the time of noting of protest, an extended protest should be made when the relevant facts have come to light, whish may be, for example, when a surveyor’s report has been received. It therefore necessary at the time making original protest to reserved the right to extend the protest at the time and place convenient’
    • The extended protest document will always be required by an average adjuster when prepare a general average statement.
    • Although it is good practice to always extended protest, in the UK it is not legally necessary in other to safeguard owners’ interest.

Q.22:  Under what circumstance would you write a letter of protest?

A:         When cargo is being loaded too fast or too slow; when stevedores are damaging ship or mishandling ship’s equipment; when wash from harbor craft is causing problems for ship; when cargo specification is ‘wrong’ when there is discrepancy  between ship’s and shore cargo figures; when berth or fendering arrangements are inadequate; when longshoremen/Dockers are misusing ship’s equipment and ignoring duty officers ‘ advice; when passing vessel cause ranging, wash damage etc. whilst loading/discharging in any other situation where the master wishes to formally record his dissatisfaction with arrangement over which the other party has some control.

Q23:What are the offence for which a UK master could be fine up to $50,000 on summary conviction?

    1. Concealing British Nationality.
    2. Causing a ship to appear to British
    3. Falling to render assistance to other vessel to following a collision.
    4. Ship dangerously   unsafe in UK port.
    5. Disobeying “section137” government directions following a shipping a shipping casualties.
    6. Entering or leaving UK port or terminal without a valid OPIC
    7. Leaving UK port in contravention of a detection order
    8. Carrying passing in excess of the number of permitted by the passenger certificate
    9. Proceeding against the traffic flow in a separation scheme.

Q.24: what is the difference between summery conviction and conviction on indictment?

A:        Summary of convection is a convection by magistrates in England or Wales,  or a sheriff in Scotland, following a trial in which summary procedure is used. There is no jury, and the judge(s) decide questions of fact and law; their sentencing power are  limited. It is used mainly for mirror offences. Convection on indictment is for more serious offence. The convection is by a jury (of 12 in England or Wales, or 15 in Scotland) who decide questions of fact, while the judge decides question of law only. Fines may be unlimited but prison terms are limited.

Q.25: What reports would make if you lost a container-load of chemical in drums over side in bad weather?

A:       Navigational warning

Q.26:   What is the procedure for reporting to custom on arrival in a UK port from aboard ?

A:

  1. From c. 13 to submit – master’s declaration-at least 3 copies
  2. c.142-crew declaration-2 copies
  3. submit the cargo declaration, either on the c. 13 or by a cargo manifest, IMO from or computer disk (with custom approval)
  4. attach from PAS 15(arr) passenger return if any passengers on board
  5. have several copies of the current crew list ready.

Q.27:      When are light dues paid, and on what basis are they calculated?

A:             for outward clearance and on the basis of net tonnage.

Q.28:    Before offering to tow is a disable ship, what factors would you consider?

A:         A vessel requiring a tow is not necessary in distress. I would therefore carefully consider

  1. weather the counteract of carriage (as contained in c/p or b/I) give me liberty to tow
  2. weather I have sufficient bunkers and/or fresh water on board for the tow, and weather sufficint reserves can be maintained, throughout and after the tow
  3. weather there is a possibility of missing a cancelling date under the c/p
  4. weather the nature of may cargo permits a lengthening of the voyage (which is especially relevant aboard a refer)
  5. weather my v/I’s machinery is of adequate power and in good enough condition for towing
  6. weather the value of the v/I requesting the tow, plus her cargo, is likely to be of sufficient value to merit a salvage service by my ship

Q.29:     a) In what circumstances might an interim Certificate of Class be issued?

b) What are the contains of an interim Certificate of Class?

A:          a) When a classification society surveyor or can confirm to his societies committed that repairs or surveys have been carried out to his satisfaction, and that he consider the ship to be in a fit and efficient conditions to continue her voyage.

c)      A summary of class and statutory surveys held or work carried out, with statues (e.g. complete); the date of completion of the survey or work (for the class record); a list of any items credited for the hull and /or machinery special survey; the survey’s recommendation to his society for continuance of class; any condition of class imposed; any condition of class deleted; surveyor’s signature, port and date.

Q.30:   What action would you take if a consignees failed to produce an original bill of lading at the discharge port?

A:         Where the party clamming to be the rightful receiver request delivery of his goods but can not produce an original bill of lading (perhaps because of a delay in the mail, or because of a theft of documents from his office) I would instruct the agent to inform the receives so that no cargo can be discharge either; I) an original bill of lading can be presented;; or 2 an acceptable letter of indemnity (LOI) is given by the receiver.

Q.31:   What must a shipper make available before you load dangerous goods:

a)      in bulk liquid form?

b)      In package form?

A:             A dangerous goods Declaration or a marine pollutants declaration as appropriate. A  combined declaration is allowed. The declaration can be made on a dangerous goods/Marine Pollutants note.

Q.32:    a) What are difference between dangerous good and marine pollutant?

b) Where would you find a list all recognized ‘marine pollutants?

A:         b)  In the IMDG code. They are indicate by the words ‘Marine Pollutants’ and a symbol of a triangle containing a fish, with an overlaid cross.

Q.33:

a)      These is non section in the ORB specifically for recording bunkering operation.

b)      Where must Master’s signature appear in the ORB?

c)      For how long must an ORB be kept on board?

A:

a)      Part-1, Section-H. concern additional operations procedures and general remarks.

b)      At the end of each page.

c)      3 years from last entry made.

Q.34:

a)      Who can demand to see your Official Log Book?

b)      How would you correct an erroneous entry in the OLB?

A:     a)     To the RSS; an MCA Superintend; a proper officer; an MCA Surveyor; or a  custom officer. In practice I would shod show it also to any foreign state or harbor official who demanded to see it, because local law may require this.

b) With a further entry. I would leave the incorrect entry as it is and make a new entry referring to mistake, e.g. “In previous entry, for smith read Jones”

—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————-

BUOYS and ROR.

Q:     Your vessels Heading south and you see a south cardinal buoy on your right a head what is your action?

A:

  1. Stop Engine.
  2. Take her all way off.
  3. Echo sounder on
  4. Check the position of buoy on chart.
  5. Check your position.
  6. Make a full appraisal of the situation.
  7. Decide the best course of action.

Q:      How a new danger marked?

A :     One or more cardinal or lateral buoy. If the danger is gravid one of the buoy will be duplicated. One of those will have Racon with “D” with the signal length 1(one) NM (at least) on render PPI. Light on the buoys must be quick or very quick.

Q:   If you see a white light at night time what it could be?

A:

  1. Astern light of a vessel.
  2. Life raft light
  3. Vessel less then 7 meter long and whose maximum speed should not exceed more then 7 kts.
  4. Vessel less then 50 meter long at anchor.
  5. Vessel under ores.

Q:   Where is special mark buoy used?

A:

  1. Channel within the channel.
  2. Recreation zone.
  3. Ocean data accusation system.
  4. Firing area.
  5. Traffic separation scheme.
  6. Spoil ground.
  7. Cable and pipe line area.

Q:    What is the other name of a safe water buoy?

A:

  1. Mid channel buoy.
  2. Fairway buoy.
  3. Landfall buoy.

Q:    Fog bank ahead-Action?

A:  General:

  1. Inform engine room and SBE.
  2. Reduce speed to safe speed.
  3. Check navigation light.
  4. Post extra lookout.
  5. Start fog signal.
  6. Start radar plotting.
  7. Man on the wheel.

Operational:

  1. Close water tight door.
  2. Order silence on Deck.
  3. Open bridge wings door.

Navigational:

  1. Check the position of last visual object.
  2. Increase the fog signal frequency in near coastal water.
  3. If shallow water put echo-sounder on.

Q:   On the fog you just switch on the Radar, you found a target on the PPI just 3 miles right ahead.

A:

  1. Stop Engine
  2. Take her all way off.
  3. Change fog signal and sound more frequently
  4. Start radar plotting.
  5. Completed radar plotting.
  6. Find out best course of action.

Do not alter course before competing radar plotting as because this is a scanty radar information.

Dry docking

Q:     what is Dry dock procedure?

A:      Before Docking

  • Make a repair list.
  • Contact with dry dock authorities

n  agreed draught and trim.(upright with small trim)

n  supply ships plan, including shell expansion plan showing position of appendages, inlet, discharge, echo sounders, projecting logs, bilge keels, propellers, etc., Cargo plan if any cargo on board, Any available plans from previous dry dock which might be useful.

n  Confirm weather the dock is graving or floating dock, weather side shores or bilge block will be used.

n  Confirm the facilities are supplied – toilets, fire main, telephone etc.

n  Rig fenders as necessary.

  • Calculate stability condition (particularly for critical instant). Minimize free surface and secure moveable weights.

P=(COT X MCTC) / LCF, {P=Reduction of TMD X TPC}

Virtual loss of GM=( P X KM ) / W

COT=( W X D ) / MCTC.

  • If possible empty fore and aft peak tanks (unsupported weights increase hogging stress)
  • Lower derricks and cranes and ensure hatches closed.

After Docking

  • Secure two means of access/escape (e.g. Gangway port forward and starboard aft)
  • Takes sounding of all spaces and record result.
  • Establish shore connection for telephone, fire line, domestic water, electric power. Secure earth retune line.
  • Clarify responsibility between ship and shore (e.g. Watchman, fire patrols)
  • Arrange sanitation/toilets/waste disposal. Close/plug scuppers, overboard discharge, etc.
  • Safety store (chief mate office) the bottom plug removed.

Before Flooding  Dock

  • Take sounding of all spaces and compare with soundings on entry ( if any difference, re-work stability condition for critical instant.).
  • Check all plugs back in place.
  • Ensure all staging removed. Disconnect all utilities. Remove gangways.

Q:     What is critical instant?

A;   as the water is pumped out the vessel’s trim will reduce until the ship land fore and aft on the blocks. The instant before this happens is known as the CRITICAL INSTANT.

Q:     What is critical period?

A:     The interval of time between the vessel touching the blocks aft and landing fore and aft is known as the CRITICAL PERIOD since the vessel is losing stability throughout this period.

Q:    What precaution you would take while Docking with Cargo?

A:

  1. Leave some water in the dock so that the vessel is still displacing water, thereby reducing the up thrust from blocks.
  2. Increase the number of lines of blocks supporting the vessel so as to spread the load. (N.B. Blocks should always be laid line with longitudinal bottom giders).

Q:    What is Declivity?

A:      The declivity of the dry-dock is the slop of the bottom of the dock towards the entrance ( this assist in the drainage of the dock).

ON BOARD SAFETY

THE DUTIES OF A SAFETY OFFICER

  1. Endeavor to ensure that the provisions of the Code of Safe Working Practices are complied with.
  2. Endeavor to ensure that the employer’s occupational health and safety policies are complied with.
  3. Investigate (1) every accident required to notified by the Merchant Shipping Act (2) every dangerous occurrence (3) all potential hazards to occupation health and safety.
  4. Investigate all complaints by crew member concerning occupational health and safety.
  5. Carry out occupational heath and safety inspections of each accessible part of the ship at least one every three months.
  6. Make representations and, where appropriate,  recommendations to the master (and through him to the company ) about any deficiency in the ship with regard to (1) any legislative requirement relating to occupational health and safety (2) any relevant M notice (3) any provision of the Code of Safe Working Practices
  7. Ensure so far as possible that safety instructions, rule, and guidance are complied with.
  8. Maintain a record  book describing all the circumstances and detail of all accidents and dangerous occurrence’ and of all other procedures require by his duties, and to make the records available for inspection by appropriate personnel.
  9. Stop any work which he reasonably believes may case a serious accident and inform the appropriate personnel.
  10. Carry out the requirements of the safety committee.

INSPECTIONS TO BE CARRIED OUT BY A SAFETY OFFICER

  1. Are means of access to the are under inspection in a safe conditions, well lit, and unobstructed?
  2. Are fixtures fittings over which seaman might trip or which project particularly over head, there by causing potential hazards, suitably painted or marked?
  3. Are all guard-rails in places, secure, and in good condition?
  4. Are lighting levels adequate?
  5. Is ventilation adequate?
  6. Is machinery adequately guarded where necessary?
  7. Are permits to work used when necessary?
  8. Is the level of supervision adequate, particularly for inexperienced crew?

The investigation of accidents and dangerous occurrences will be an important part of the safety officer’s duties. The actual reporting of an accident will be carried out by the master but it is the statutory duty of the safety officer to investigate the incident and to assist the master to complete accident report form.

Crew < 16: one safety representative may be elected by the officer and ratings;

Crew  > 15: one safety representative may be elected by the officers and one safety representative may be elected by the ratings.

ROLE OF THE SAFETY REPRESENTATIVE

The safety representative has powers but no duties

  1. Participate in any of the inspection or investigation conducted by the safety officer, provided that the latter agrees to such participation
  2. Undertake similar inspection or investigation himself, providing that notification of such activities has been given to the master.
  3. On behalf of the crew on matters affecting occupational health and safety (1) consult with master and the safety officer and make recommendation to them, including recommendation to the master, ‘that any work which the safety rep believes may cause an accident should be suspended’ (2) make representation through the master to the employer (3) result through the safety committee an investigation by the safety officer of any such matter.
  4. Inspect any of the safety officer’s records.
  • Employer appoints a Safety Committee
  • Safety Committee are mandatory on any ship which has elected safety representatives.
  • The membership of the committee must include the master as chairman, the Safety Officer, and every safety representative.

THE DUTIES OF SAFETY COMMITTEE

  1. Ensure that the provisions of the Code of Safe Working Practices are complier with.
  2. Improve the standard of safety consciousness among the crew.
  3. Make representations and recommendations on behalf of the crew to the employer.
  4. Inspect any of the Safety Officer’s records.
  5. Ensure the observance of the employer’s occupational health and safety policies.
  6. Consider and take any appropriate action in respect of any occupational health and safety matters affecting the crew.
  7. Keep a record of all proceedings.

METHODS FOR IMPROVING & MAINTAINING SAFETY AWARENESS

  1. Films:- screening of safety movies
  2. Posters:- bringing predications, safety dangers to the attention of the crew members
  3. Publications:- safety publications, safety on ships, personal survival at sea, etc.
  4. Informal talks:- talking to sections of the crew to bring awareness
  5. Maintenance of safety equipment:- involving as many people as possible in the maintenance of safety equipment’s.
  6. Fire patrols:- particular attention to be paid to patrolling the accommodations between 2300 hours and 0600 hours.
  7. Marine safety cards: – these cards highlight particular dangers on board ship.
  8. Accident records:-  details of accidents should be posted on notice boards as an accident prevention aid.
  9. Days without accident board:- post notices stating the number of days since the occurrence of the last accident.
  10. Safety quiz:- open to individual with a suitable prize being awarded.
  11. ‘Permit to work’ system:- importance of strict compliance with the permit should be emphasized.

Fire

FIRE FIGHTING IN PORT:

All ships should have an update fire wallet containing.

  1. A general arrangement plan
  2. A ventilation plan
  3. A shell expansion plan in case it will be necessary to cut through the ship side
  4. A plan of the fire fighting equipment
  5. Electrical date
  6. Stability data due to the dangers of free surface another effects
  7. A cargo plan with any dangerous cargo being specifically mentioned
  8. Location of watertight doors and fire resistant partitions.
  9. Any drilling machines and special equipment that be vessel carries
  10. Up date list of crew

The senior fire officer should be presented with the wallet and may also require the following information

  1. The exact location of the fire and the chances of it spreading to other compartments
  2. Contents of db’s or deep tanks in the vicinity
  3. What the ship’s staff are doing and how many pumps and hoses are in the operation
  4. If any fixed firefighting installation is in operation
  5. The state of cargo operation
  6. The condition of flue oil, ballast and fresh water tanks
  7. The ship’s communication systems
  8. The number of people on board
  9. Any peculiarities of the ship’s design

FIRE IN PORT (ACTION)

  1. Raise the alarm
  2. Tackle fire by convention means immediately
  3. Master on bridge (informed)
  4. Head count taken for casualties
  5. Stop cargo work
  6. All non essential persons off ship (head count with foreman/stevedore)
  7. I will bring in the bridge
  8. Open communication by vhf
  9. On tankers use of fire wires/tugs for casting off

******if u.k.c. less than 1/9th draught then cannot flood hold for fire fighting

******man on gangway stationed with fire plan and international shore coupling

******pulling out man with b.a set

  1. If run out of air
  2. If run out of fire fighting medium

FIRE AT SEA (TYPICAL E/ROOM FIRE)

  1. Rains the alarm
  2. Master on the bridge and take the con
  3. Engine room standby
  4. A/co to reduce draft in vessel (or) slow ship down
  5. Weather reports, position, open, up communication urgency signal(**passenger vessel distress signal)
  6. Isolate electrical unit, commence boundary cooling
  7. Tackle fire by conventional means immediately
  8. B.A set in pairs (c/o not to enter as he monitors progress and communication with the bridge

FIRE OUT OF CONTROL

  1. Master recommends withdraw and go to co2
  2. Master-accepts (c/eng, c/o to co2 room and inject co2)
  3. Evacuate e/room, head count
  4. Shut down fuel, boiler, fans

*****emc’y stop box in alleyway main deck

  1. Take head count and if any person missing
  2. Hold co2 and order to carry out a quick search
  3. Once search carried out inject co2 (if a person is missing, continue search till he is found or an explosion is imminent before injecting CO2)

OPERATION PROCEDURE

  1. Evacuate all personnel
  2. Batten down and seal ventilation
  3. Stop all fans, flue supply boilers
  4. Sound audible and visual alarm

LIMITATION ON SYSTEM

  1. Once used no replenishment at sea
  2. Isolation necessary (asphyxiation)
  3. No inspection to observe results

AFTER FLOODING

  1. Boundary cooling always on
  2. Monitor temperature and graph it
  3. When temperature starts dipping
  4. Pair search for assessing situation (3/0, 2 eng)
  5. Delay situation for second opinion (2/0, c/ eng)
  6. Wait ( incase eminent level sight) open up ventilation, go in with fire fighting equipment
  7. Tug (for extensive damage): salvage

ENCLOSED SPACES (PERMIT TO WORK)

  • Permit to work for must be used for any jobs which might be hazardous.
  • It states work to be done and safety precautions.
  • Safety instructions are written down and given to persons associated with the job.
  • The permit should contain a checklist to identify and eliminate hazards plus arrangements for emergency procedures in case of any accidents.
  • The permit should be issued by a responsible officer and must ensure that all checks have been properly carried out and signed only when he is satisfied that it is safe to work.

An enclosed space will include cargo tank, ballast tank, cofferdam, bunker tank, fresh water tank, duct keel etc, which may contain toxic vapors or insufficient oxygen to support life. No one must enter an enclosed space without first obtaining permission from the Proper Officer.

Before making entry the following to be checked and approved by the Master

  1. Spaces to be visited.
  2. Names of all personnel entering.
  3. Details of communication system.
  4. Anticipated time of completion of entry.
  5. A proper communication system using portable VHF sets. (communications to be effective between the OOW on the bridge and the person immediately outside the space).

O2 Analyser-oxygen deficiency

Explosimeter –measures explosive limits

Tank Scope-measures oxygen in insert atmosphere

Dragger Tubes-measures oxygen if correct  tube fitted (also measures the presence of various toxic gases).

VENTILATION’S

  • Ventilation (either forced or natural) to be carried out before entry is permitted.
  • If forces ventilation is used then minimum of two air changes must take places.
  • If potentially dangerous spaces allow for between 10-20 air changes per hour.
  • If natural ventilation is only available space must be allowed to be “breathe” for at least 24 hours prior entry.
  • Full ventilation may be ensured by filling the tank with clean sea water and pumping out to ensure fresh air enters thee spaces.(This should coupled by forces ventilation).
  • No one must enter a cargo pump room without the permission of the proper officer.

REQUIREMENT FOR ENTRY INFO PUMPROOM

  • A permanently rigged rescue line and harness should be at the top of all cargo and transfer pump rooms (part of life saving appliance) (SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR ANY OTHER PURPOSE).
  • No fixed equipment fitted in the pump room should be operated if the gas LEL is in excess of 40%.
  • Gas generation caused by oil in bilge’s may be reduced/minimized by spreading a layer of foam over the pump room bilge’s.
  • Permission gas been obtained from a Senior Officer.
  • Ventilation should be provided for at least 15 minutes and remains in use throughout the period of entry.
  • Means of communication must be established.
  • Lifeline and Harness is ready for immediate use.
  • A competent person is standby on top of the pump room to call for assistance.
  • Advice the officer of entry and exit.
  • Obtain explosimeter reading from the Bottom platform that it is free of toxic vapours along with regular checks (incase of maintenance works)
  • At least one compressed B.A set is ready for immediate use on top. (in case of maintenance works)
  • Additional B.A set is read for use close at work.(incase of maintenance works)
  • Have resuscitation equipment ready for immediate use close at work.( incase of maintenance works).
  • Chief Officer should personally supervise incase of an emergency.

THE OXYGEN CONTENT OF AIR IS 21% IF THE LEVEL FALLS TO APPROXIMATELY 17% THE ATMOSPHERE IS UNSAFE.

SAMPLE OF AN ENTRY PERMIT FORM

  1. Has the permission been obtained from the Chief Officer?
  2. Is the tank clean?
  3. Is the tank pressurized?
  4. Has the tank been inert, then gas-freed?
  5. Doe the tank atmosphere contain at least 21% oxygen?
  6. Is the hydraulic cargo system shut down?
  7. Is the tank isolated from the inert gas main?
  8. Have notices been placed at tank hatches?
  9. Have notices been placed at the inert gas isolating valves?
  10. Have notices been placed on the cargo control?
  11. Is fresh air being supplied to cargo control?
  12. Is one man stationed at the cargo tank hatch?
  13. Is breathing apparatus and lifeline available?

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