Second Mate Section 3

ONBOARD SAFETY

THE DUTIES OF A SAFETY OFFICER

1.         Endeavour to ensurethat the provisions of the Code of Safe Working Practices are complied with.

2.         Endeavour to ensure that the employer’s occupational health and safety policies are complied with.

3.         investigate (1) every accident required to be notified by the Merchant Shipping Act (2) every dangerous occurrence (3) all potential hazards to occupational health and safety and make recommendations to the master to preventthe recurrence of an accident or to remove the hazard.

4.         Investigate all complaints by crew members concerning occupational health and safety.

5.         Carry out occupational health and safety inspections of each accessible part of the ship at least once every three months.

6.         Make representations and, where appropriate, recommendations to the master (and through him to the company) about any deficiency in the ship with regard to (1) any legislative requirement relating to occupational health and safety (2) any relevant M notices (3) anyprovision of the Code of Safe Working Practices

7.         Ensure so far as possible that safety instructions, rules, and guidance are complied with.

8          Maintain a record book describing all the circumstances and aetails of all to accidents and dangerous occurrences, and of all other procedures required by his duties, and to make the records available for inspection by appropriate personnel.

9.         Stop any work which he reasonably believes may case a serious accident and inform the appropriate personnel.

10.       Carry out the requirements of the safety committee.

INSPECTIONS TO BE CARRIED OUT BY A SAFETY OFFICER

1.         Are means of access to the are under inspection in a safe condition, well ift, and unobstructed?

2.         Are fixtures and fittings over which seamen might trip or which project particularly overhead, thereby causing potential hazards, suitably painted or marked?

3.         Are all guard-rails in place, secure, and in good condition?

4.         Are lighting levels adequate?

5.         Is ventilation adequate?

6.         Is machinery adequately guarded where necessary?

7.         Are permits to work used when necessary?

8.         Is the level of supervision adequate, particularly) for inexperienced crew

The investigation of accidents and dangerous occurrences will be an important part of the safety officer’s duties. The actual reporting of an accident will be carried out by the master but it is the statutory dutyof the Safety officer. to investigate the incident and to assist the master to complete the accident report form.

Crew < 16 : one safety representative may be elected by the officers and ratings;

Crew> 15 : one safety representative may be elected by the officers and one safety

representative may be elected by the ratings.

ROLE OF THE SAFETY REPRESENTATIVE

The safety representative has powers but no duties

1.         Participate in any of the inspection or investigations conducted by the Safety Officer, provided that the latter agrees to such participation.

2.         Undertake similar inspections or investigations himself, providing that notification of such activities has been given to the master.

3.         On behalf of the crew on matters affecting occupational health and safety (1) consult with the master and the Safety Officer and make recommendations to them, including recommendations to the master, ‘that any work which the safety rep believes may cause an accident should be. suspended’ (2) make representation through the master to the employer (3)request through the safety committee an investigation by the Safety Officer of any such matter.

4.         Inspect any of the Safety Officer’s records.

  • Employer appoints a Safety Committee
  • Safety Committees are mandatory on any ship which has elected safety representatives.
  • The membership of the committee must include the master as chairman, the Safety Officer, and every safety representative.

THE DUTIES OF SAFETY COMMITTEE

1.         Ensure that the proyision of the Code of Safe Working Practices are complied with

2.         Improve the standard of safety consciousness among the crew.

3.         Make representations and recommendations on behalf of the crew to the employer.

4.         Inspect any of the Safety Officer’s records.

5.         Ensure the observance ófthe employer’s occupational health and safety policies.

6.         Consider and take any apprpriate action in respect of any occupatipnal:.health and safety

matters affecting the c’ew

7.         Keep a record of all proceedings

METHODS FOR IMPROVING & MAINTAINING SAFETY AWXRENESS

1.         Films:- screening of safety movies

2.         Posters:- bringing particular dangers to the attention of thecrew members.

3.         Publications:- safety publications, safety on ships, personal survivalat sea, etc.

4.         Informal talks:- talking to sections of the crew to bring awareness

5.         Maintenance of safety equipment:- involving as many people as possible in the maintenance of safety equipment’s.

6.         Fire patrols:- particular attention to be paid to patrolling the accommodations between 2300 hours and 0600 hours.

7.         Marine safety cards:- these cards highlight particular dangers on board ship.

8.         Accident records:- details of accidents should be posted on notice boards as an accident

prevention aid.

9.         Dayswithout accident board:- post notices stating the number of days since the occurrence of the last accident.

10.       Safety quiz:- open to individual with a suitable prize being awarded.

11.       ‘Permit to work’ system:- importance of strict compliwice with the permit should be

emphasised

FIRE

FIRE FIGHTING IN PORT:

All ships should have an updated fire wallet containing

1.         A general arrangement plan

2.         A ventilation plan

3.         A shell expansion plan in case it will be necessary to cut through the ships side

4.         A plan of the fire fighting equipment

5.         Electrical data

6.         Stability data due to the dangers of free surface another effects

7.         A cargo plan with any dangerous cargo being specifically mentioned

8.         Location of watertight doors and fire resistant partitions

9.         Any drilling machines and special equipment that the vessel carries

The senior fire officer should be presented with the wallet and may also require the following

information

1.         The exact location of the fire and the chances of it spreading to other compartment

2.         Contents of db’s or deeptanks in the vicinity

3.         What the ship’s staff are doing and how many pumps mid hoses are in operation

4.         If any fixed firefighting installation is in operation

5.         The state of cargo operation

6.         The condition of fuel oil, ballast and fresh water tanks

7.         The ship’s communication systems

8.         The number of people on board

9.         Any particularities of the ship’s design

FIRE IN PORT (ACTION)

1.         Raise the alarm

2.         Tackle fire by convention means immediately

3.         Master on bridge (informed)

4.         Head count taken for casualties

5.         Stop cargo work.

6.         All non essential persons off ship (head count with foreman/stevedore)

7.         I will bring in the brigade

8.         Open communication by vhf

9.         On tankers use of fire wires/tugs for casting off

******if u.k.c less than 1/9th of the draught then cannot flood hold for fire fighting

******man on gangway stationed with fire plan and international shore coupling

****** pulling out man with b.a set

1) if run out of air

2) if run out of fire fighting medium

FIRE AT SEA (TYPICAL E/ROOM FIRE)

1.         Raise the alarm

2.         Master on the bridge and take the con

3.         Engine room standby

4.         A/co to reduce draft in vessel (or) slow ship down

5.         Weather reports, position, open up communication urgency signal (**passenger vessel distress signal)

6.         Isolate electrical unit, commence boundary cooling

7.         Tackle fire by conventional means immediately

8.         B.A set in pairs (c/o not to enter as he monitors progress and communication with the bridge)

FIRE OUT OF CONTROL

1.         Mate recommends withdraw and go to co2

2.         Master – accepts (c/eng, c/o to co2 room and inject co2)

3.         Evacuate e/room, head count

4.         Shut down fuel, boiler, fans

*****emc’y stop box in alleyway main deck

5.         If any person missing

6.         Hold co2 order for search carry out

7.         Once search carried out inject co2

OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE.

1.         Evacuate, all personnel.

2.         Batten down and seal ventilation

3.         Stop all fans, fuel supply andboilers

4.         Sound audible and visual alarm

LIMITATION OF SYSTEM

1.         Once used no replenishment at sea

2.         Isolation necessary (asphyxiation)

3.         No.inspection toobserve results

AFTER FLOODING

1.         Boundary cooling always on

2.         Monitor temperature and graph it

3.         When temperature starts dipping

4.         Pair search for assessing situation (3/0, 2 eng)

5.         Delay situation for second opinion (2/0, c/eng)

6.         Wait (incase eminent to leave sight) open up ventilation, go in with fire fighting equipment

7.         Tug (for extensive damage) : salvage

ENCLOSED SPACES (PERMIT TO WORK)

•           Permit to work form must be used for any jobs which might be hazardous.

•           It states work to be done and safety precautions.

•           Safety instructions are written down and given to persons associated with the job.

•           The permit should contain a checklist to identify and eliminate hazards plus arrangements for emergency procedures in case of any accidents.

•           The permit should be issued by a responsible officer and must ensure that all checks have been properly carried out and signed only when he is satisfied that it is safe to work.

An enclosed space will include cargo tank, ballast tank, cofferdam, bunker tank, fresh water tank, duct keel etc., which may contain toxic vapours or insufficient oxygen to support life.

No one must enter an enclosed space without first obtaining permission from the Proper Officer.

Before making entry the following to be checked and approved by the Master.

1.         Spaces to be visited.

2.         Names of all personnel entering.

3.         Details of communication systen.

4.         Anticipated time of completion of entry.

5.         A proper communication system using portable VHF ets. (communications to be effective between the OOW on the bridge and the peron immediately outside the space).

O2 Analyser – oxygen deficiency.

Explosimete- measures explosive limits

Tank Scope – measures oxygen in inert atmosphere

Dragger Tubes – measures oxygen if correct tube fitted (also measures the presence of various toxic gases).

VENTILATION’S

•           Ventilation (either forced or natural) to be carried out before entry is permitted.

•           If forced ventilation is used then minimum of two air changes must take place.

•           If potentially dangerous spaces allow for between 10-20 air changes per hour.

•           If natural ventilation is only available space must be allowed to “breathe” for atleast 24 hours prior entry.

•           Full ventilation may be ensured by filling the tank with clean sea water and pumping out to ensure fresh air enters the space. (This should be coupled by forced ventilation).

•           No one must enter a cargo pumproom without the permission of the Proper Officer.

REQUIREMENT FORENTRY INTO PUMPROOM

•           A permanently rigged rescue line and harness should be at the top of all cargo and transfer pumprooms (part of life saving appliance) (SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR ANY OTHER PURPOSE).

•           No fixed equipment fitted in the pumproom should be operated if the gas LEL is in excess of 40% .

•           Gas generation caused by oil in bilge’s may be reduced/minimised by spreading a layer of foan over the pumproom bilge’s.

•           Permission has been obtained from a Senior Officer.

•           Ventilation should be provided for at least 15 minutes and remains in use throughout the period of entry.

•           Means of communication must be established.

•           Lifeline andHarness is ready for immediate use.

•           A competent person is standby on top of the pumproom to call for assistance.

•           Advice the officer of entry and exit.

•           Obtain explosimeter reading from the Bottom platform that it is free of toxic vapours along with regularchecks (incase of maintenance works)

•           At least one compressed BA set is ready for immediate use on top. (incase of maintenance works) .

•           Additional B.A set is ready for use close at work. (incase of maintenance works)

•           Have resuscitation equipment ready for immediate use close at work. (incase of maintenance works).

•           Chief Officer should personally supervise incase of an emergency.

THE OXYGEN CONTENT OF AIR IS 21%. IF THE LEVEL FALLS TO

APPROXIMATELY 17% THE ATMOSPHERE IS UNSAFE.

SAMPLE OF AN ENTRY PERMIT FORM

1.         Has the permission been obtained from the Chief Officer?

2.         Is the tank clean?

3.         Is the tank pressurised?

4.         Has the tank been inert, then gas-freed?

5.         Does the tank atmosphere contain at least 21% oxygen?

6.         Is the hydraulic cargo system shut down?

7.         Is the tank isolated from the inert gas main?

8.         Have notices been placed at tank hatches?

9.         Have notices been placed at the inert gas isolating valves?

10.       Have notices been placed on the cargo control?

11.       Is fresh air being supplied to the tank?

12.       Is one man stationed at the cargo tank hatch?

13.       Is breathing apparatus and a lifeline available

MEANS OF ACCESS

In every ship of 30 metres or more registered length – there is carried on board the ship a GANGWAY which is appropriate to the deck layout, size, shape and maximum freeboard of the ship.

In every ship of 120 metres or more registered length – there is carried on board the ship a ACCOMMODATION LADDER which is appropriate to the deck layout, size, shape and

maximum freeboard of the ship.

CHECKS FOR SAFE MEANS OF ACCESS

1.         Accommodation Ladder is capable of being operated safely in a horizontal position and does not exceed an angle of 55 with the steps horizontal. (Except where specifically designed for greater angles).

2.         In case of a Gangway is capabe of being operated safely in a horizontal position and does not exceed pn angle of 30 with the steps horizontal. (Except where specifically designed for greater angles).

3.         The access equipment which is used is properly rigged,’ secured and safe to use.

4.         Access equipment and immediate access thereto are adequately illuminated.

5.         Equipment used is fgood construction, sound material, free from defects and properly

maintained

6.         Safety nets in place and properly secured.

7.         Life buoy with self activating light and also a separate safety line attached to a quoit or some similar device is provided ready for use at the point of access aboard the ship.

8.         The bottom platform is horizontal to the key and the roller is free to move.

9.         All the sheaves and running parts of the gangway are rust free and properly greased.

10.       Gangway and other access equipment should not be rigged on ship’s rails unless the rail has been reinforced for that purpose

PLANNED MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE

FACTORS DETERMINING PMS

1.         The plan must be adaptable to various weather conditions.

2.         The plan must be flexible so that changes of orders or cargoes do not upset it unduly

3.         The length of voyages, routes and trades that the vessel is involved in must be considered.

4.         The maintenance of safety equipment and emergency team training should be integrated with the overall maintenance plan.

5.         The plan should be constructed so that the appropriate equipment is bought up o optimum condition for statutory and classifications surveys.

6.         Dry-docking and repair period should be integrated with the plan.

7.         Manufactures advice should be complied with and all manufactures maintenance logs should be completed.

8.         The plan should include the availability of appropriate equipment for breakdown maintenance due to unforeseen circumstances.

9.         Provisions hould be made for spare part replacements due to wear and tear maintenance. There should also be a method for ordering spares as soon as replacement items are used

10.       The plan must be carefully thought out, well controlled, and an efficient recording system must be kept upto date.

PLANNED MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE

(a) short term maintenance

weekly inspection and greasing”(when possible)

•           winches and windlasses

•           oil baths, if any, in winches and windlasses

•           wheels on steel hatch covers

•           door hinges on mast houses

•           ventilation system flaps and ventilators

•           cleats on external weathertight doors

•           anchor securing arrangements

•           booby hatches to cargo holds

•           sounding and air pipes

•           fairleads, rollers

•           derrick heels

fortnightly inspection and greasing

•           accommodation ladder and gangway

•           lifeboat falls and blocks

•           davit pivot points

•           fire hydrants, and monitors

•           fire hose box hinges

•           quick release gear on bridge wing life buoys

•           all life buoys

•           liferaft securing arrangements

•           securing bolts on international shore connection

•           steel hatch cross joints and quick acting cleats

•           hatch gypsy drive wheels and followers

•           hatch contractor panel fuses, electric cables and connections, motor heaters

•           all external butterfly nuts

•           all external electric cables and deck lighting arrangements

monthly inspection and greasing where necessary

•           life boat falls for broken strands

•           co2 cylinders in gang release system

•           fire detection systems

•           breathing apparatus and associated equipment

•           ladders on masts and ventilation posts

•           radar mast rigging

•           fire gauze

•           freeing ports

•           scuppers

•           hatchway non return valves

•           ship side guard rails

(b) long term maintenance

three monthl inspeetion and/or overhaul

•           all cargo gear

•           navigation light connections

•           hold ventilation systems

six monthly inspection and/or overhaul

•           cargo winches

•           strip all mooring rollers

•           fresh water tanks

•           alI running gear, strip blocks and derricks

•           cofferdams and void spaces

•           forepeak and afterpeak .

•           remove ventilator cowls and grease the coaming test dampers flaps and locking screws

•           hold equipment such as spar ceiling, limberboards, double bottoms, manholes, wells bilge’s strum boxes

yearly

•           derust and repaint derricks

•           end for end lifeboat falls

•           watertight seals on hatchways

•           loosen spare anchor securing bolts, lubricate all anchor parts and re-secure

•           rotational cleaning and painting of store rooms, alleyways, cabins and mess rooms

•           strip the windlass and aft mooring winch

•           standing rigging

(c) operational maintenance

to be carried out when necessary

•           anchor cable marking

•           check mooring ropes and wires before and after use

•           all gantlines before being used on stages

•           pilot ladder and hoists, gangways, accommodation ladders and associated equipment before and after use

•           check anchor and cables stowed properly

•           test fire fighting appliance before entering port

•           test manual and emergency steering an dngements hei ore entering coastal waters

•           cargo securing arrangernets

•           all cargo gears and hatch closing arrangements before and after use

•           check hydraulic oil in any system

•           fumigate and spray holds as necessary

CARGO HANDLING GEAR

TESTING OF LIFTING PLANT

Lifting gear should be tested by a ‘competent person’

1.         After installation

2.         After any major repairs

3.         Every 5 years

Lifting appliance are usually given a static test using a proqf load or dynarnometer (static test)

Proof load always exceeds the SWL (safe working load) by a given percentage or weight.

Code Of Safe Working Practices states that ‘a mass in excess of SWL should not be lifted unless’:

1.         A test is required

2.         The weight of the load is known and is the appropriate proof load

3.         The lift is a straight lift by a single appliance

4.         The lift is supervised by the competent person who would normally supervise a test

and carry out a thorough examination.

5.         The competenterson specifies in writing that the lift is appropriate in weight and

other respects to act as a test of the plant, and agrees to the detailed plan for the lift

6.         No person is exposed to danger.

Lifting plant must be ‘thoroughly examined’ by a competent person (Chief Officer)

l.          After testing

2.         At least once every 12 months.

A ‘through examination’ means a detailed examination by a competent person, supplemented by stripping the gear down for inspection if this is judged necessary

CERTIFICATES AND REPORTS

A ‘REGISTER OF SHIP’S LIFTING APPLIANCE AND CARGO HANDLING GEAR’ should be kept on board for inspection.

This register should contain:

1.         The certificates of test together with reports of thorough examination -

2.         Items of loose gear such as blocks, schakies, bridles, etc., should be identifiable by a number stamped onthe item and recorded on the certificate.

3.         Where a lifting appliance is tested, the. SWL and proof load are recorded together with the identity and status of the ‘competent person’.

4.         Details of regular inspections of loose gear by a. suitable person should also be reocrded as well as details of defects found and repairs effected.

CONDEM A WIRE – IN ANY 8 DIAMETER WHEN 10% OF THE WIRES ARE BROKEN FOR STANDING RIGGING – STEEL WIRE ROPE (6 x 6 WPS)

FOR RUNNING RIGGING – FLEXIBLE STEEL WIRE ROPE (6 x 12/18/24 WPS)

EXTRA FLEXIBLE STEEL WIRE ROPE (6 x 36 WPS)

{EXTRA FLEXIBLE STEEL WIRE ROPE HAS A FIBRE CORE FOR LUBRICATION AND

FLEXIBILITY}

[WPS - WIRES PER STRANDS]

BREAKING STRESS (BS) = 20 D2/500 SWL = BS/6

UNION PURCHASE SWL 1/3 SWL OF SINGLE DERRICK

SAFE ANGLE BETWEEN RUNNERS 90 (120 OCCASIONAL LIFTING)

RIGGING PLANS

1.         Position and size of deck eye plates

2.         Position of inboard and outboard booms

3.         Maximum head room (i.e. permissible height of cargo hook above hatch coam ing)

4.         Maximum angle between runners

5.         Position, size and SWL of blocks

6.         Length size and SWL of runners, topping lifts, guys and preventers

7.         SWL of shackles

8.         Position of derricks producing maximum forces

9.         Optimum position for guys and preventers to resist such maximum forces

10.       Combined diagram showing forces for a load of 1 tonne or the SWL

11.       Guidance on the maintenance of the derrick rig.

OVERHAULING THE DERRICK HEEL GOOSE NECK

If possible this operation should be carried oit when the vessel is at anchor.

Before starting the jot a temporary secure crutch for the derrick heel should be made so that the derrick is not left suspended on the lifting tackle.

1.         Securely lash the derrick head in its crutch

2.         Remove and overhaul the derrick heel block

3.         Secure a purchase of appropriate SWL to a suitable position on the mast or Samson post and the derrick. A direct lift can often be obtained over the derrick heel by unshipping the derrick topping lift block and secunng the purchase by a strap to the heel of the derrick

4.         Lubricate and remove the vertical and horizontal pivot bolt nuts

5.         Heave tight on the lifting purchase and take the weight of the derrick.

6.         Lubricate, free and remove the pivot bolts. (A gentle tapping with the hammer may be necessary to dislodge the bolts

7.         Unship the derrick heel and secure it in the temporary crutch

8.         Clean all surfaces thoroughly and check all parts for signs of wear or hair cracks. Particular attention should be paid to the bolts.

9.         Thoroughly lubricate all areas and re-assemble the goose neck are to its operational condition.

PRECAUTION WHEN LOADING A HEAVY LIFT

1.         Ensure stability of vessel is adequate and maximum heel is acceptable. (Eliminate free surface) (large GM small Heel)(monitor practically during operation via inclinometer)

2.         Rigextra mast stays as necessary.

3.         Carefully check condition of derrick and gear before use. (Ensure free rotation of sheaves. Oil and grease as necessary. Ensure SWL of all gear adequate and have valid test certificates)

4.         Rig fenders as necessary

5.         Ensure all moorings taut and have men standby to tend as necessary

6.         Put winches in double gear (for slow operation)

7.         Clear area of the deck where the weight is to be landed of all obstructions and lay heavy dunnage to spread load.

8.         Check ship’s data to ensure deck is strong enough to support load. (Deck load capacity plan)

9.         Clear are of all but essential personnel

10.       Ensure winch drivers competent and fully aware of who is to give directions.

11        Secure steadying lines to corners of loads

12.       Remove rails if possible

13.       Cast off any barges alongside

14.       Inform all relevant personnel before lift begins

15.       Raise gangway before lift commences

16.       Use lifting points – otherwise sling it, using dunnage for sharp corners

17.       Set tight steam guys before lifting

18.       When all ready take weight slowly then stop and inspect all around before lifting further.

VESSEL LAID-UP JOIN AS C/O HAVE TO USE LIFTING GEAR PROCEDURE

1.         Consult rigging plan

2.         Or manufactures instruction

3.         Rig derrick accordingly

4.         Bring in a surveyor.

LATERAL DRAG (LOADING A HEAVY  LIFT ON TO A TRUCK)

SIMULTANEOUSLY COME BACK ON THE TOPPING LIFTS AND LIFTING PURCHASE TO KEEP THE PLUMBLING IN TACT

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