Master Section 2
Q: Engine break down in mid-Atlantic. TRS expected, One Ship offers assistance but not on LOF. Demands its own condition, What will you do ?
A: As the safety of the my crew is prime, I will took his terms and condition under protest which will be monitored by coast radio station and make a OLB entry, This was to protest owner’s interest.
Q: What is the general rule, when v/I in danger, about seeking advice instructions from owners ?
A: Always to seek the advice and instructions of the owner’s but only if time allows. I should immediately call for assistance from any available source if I think it necessary for the safety of my ship, crew, passengers and cargo.
Q: When several ship different types and size offer their services. What assistance would you accept?
A: The assistance that seems the most reasonable, taking into account the value of the assisting ships, their ability to perform the salvage services and the amount of their deviation from their intended routes.
Q: Under salvage condition, What consideration should be uppermost in your mind, in addition to any threat to life, your ship or the cargo ?
A: The necessity to avoid or reduce the risk of pollution, i.e. harm to the environment.
Q: In deciding weather to accept salvage assistance, what circumstances would you take account of ?
A:1) Safety of personnel.
2) Proximity to the shore or shoal water.
3) Weather and sea conditions.
4) Current and tide.
5) Nature of sea bed and shore line.
6) Potential of safe anchoring.
7) Availability of assistance.
8) Damage already sustained by ship.
9) Risk of further damage to ship.
10) Prospect of maintaining communications.
11) Threat of pollution and
12) Manpower and material requirement.
Q : If v/l is in danger, are you, as master of a nearby ship, under any obligation to save the v/l itself?
A : No. shipmaster are under a statutory obligation to save human life only, and to prevent harm to marine environment. The first priority is to decide how to save lives on board, and then think about protecting the marine environment and finally about saving the ship if circumstances permit.
Q : What would be you consideration as master before offering a tow?
A : A v/l requiring a tow is not necessarily in distress. I would therefore carefully consider.
1) Weather the contact of carriage gives my vessels liberty to tow.
2) Weather I have sufficient reserve (fuel, water, provision) throughout and after tow.
3) Weather there is a possibility of missing a cancelling date under the charter party.
4) Weather the nature of my cargo permit.
5) Machinery is of adequate power and in good enough condition for towing.
6) Weather the value of v/l requesting tow, plus her cargo, is likely to be sufficient value to merit a salvage service by my ship.
Q : Having agreed in principal to giving another v/l a tow, what would be your consideration as master?
A :1) Has an agreed to salvage under LOF 2000 terms been made?
3) Have I noticed by owners and charter’s so that additional hull insurance can be arranged if necessary
4) Are proper records of all events and circumstances to date being kept.
2) Has a port of consideration/place of safety been agreed/
Q: what are the different between the old OLF and LOF 95
A: On new LOF, the clamming percentage for salvage have changed from30% to 100%.
MASTER AND CREW
Q: Tow hour before sailing you found 3/E is not on board, as Master what action would you take?
A: As Master, must ensure that the ship does not proceed to sea unless there is on board a valid safe manning document and manning of the ship complies with it. There is on provision for sailing short-handed.
If a 3/E is listed on the SMD, I would not sail until a replacement was found. I would sign the 3/E of is his absence and leave is his gear with the agent.
Notify local proper officer, owner and make an OLB entry.
Q: What is the most serious offences under the merchant navy code of conduct? Or dismissal offence?
A: Dismissal offence:
2) Wilful damage to the ship or property on board.
3) Theft, or possession of stolen property.
4) Possession of offensive weapons.
5) Persistent or wilful failure to performed duty
6) Unlawful possession or distribution on drugs
7) Conduct endangering the ship or person on the board
8) Combination with other to impede the progress of the voyage or the navigation of the ship
9) Disobedience of orders relating to safety of the ship or of any person on board
10) Being asleep on duty or failing to remain on duty if this prejudiced the of the ship or any person on board
11) Incapacity through drink or drug to carry out duty to the prejudice of safety of the ship or of any person on the board
12) To smoke, use a naked like or unapproved electric torch in any part of a ship carrying dangerous cargo or stored where smoking or the used of naked light or unapproved the torches is prohibited
13) Intimidation, Coercion and / or interference with the work of other employees
14) Behaviour seriously detracting from the safe and / or efficient working of the ship
15) Conduct of a sexual nature, or other conduct based on sex affecting the dignity of woman and man at work which is unwanted, unreasonable an offensive to the recipient
16) Behaviour seriously detracting from the social well-being of any other person on board
17) Causing or allowing unauthorised persons to be on board whilst at sea
18) Repeated commission of lesser breaches after warring have been given
Q: What are the lesser offences?
A:1) Not justifying dismissal in the particular case
2) Minor act of negligence, neglect of duty, disobedience and assault
3) Unsatisfactory work performance
4) Poor time keeping
5) Stopping work before the authorised
6) Failure to report to work without satisfactory reason
7) Absence from the place of duty or from the ship without leave
8) Offensive or disorderly behaviour. Some companies add breaches related to special trading patterns, etc.
Q: How would you deal with an alleged serious breach of the code of conduct that was referred to you?
A: I would deal with it as soon as possible, and in person. I would first convene a formal hearing in my office, with accuser and present. I would tell the seafarer that he may be accompanied by a friend who can advise him and speak on his behalf (like a solicitor or counsel in court), and that he(or his fiend) may call any witnesses he chooses and question them on their evidence. When ready to stat, I would inform the seafarer of the alleged breach (referring to the particular paragraph and sub-paragraph of the Code of Conduct) and ask him if he admits or denies the allegation. (If he admitted it, there would be no need for any evidence to be called, except in mitigation, or for cross-examination.) I would tell the seafarer he may makes any statement he wishes in answer to the alleged breach, including comments on evidence produce against him. I would hear all the evidence (against and for the seafarer) and any cross-examination of the evidence. Then, after considering the evidence, I would orally inform the seafarer weather or not I found that he had committed the alleged breach. If I did so find, I would impose a sanction with I considered reasonable in all the circumstances, taking in to account his record on the ship and other relevant factors.
Q: What sanctions may you (as master) impose under the Code of Conduct, if you find a seafarer guilty of a breach of the Code?
A:1) A formal (oral) warning record in the OLB
3) Dismissal from the ship, either immediately (if in a UK or overseas port), or at the next port.
2) A written reprimand, also recorded in the OLB, or
Q: In what circumstances could you arrange for the dismissal of a seafarer and his repatriation to the UK from an overseas port of call?
A: If I found (after a properly conducted hearing) that he had breached of code conduct and I decided that his continued presence on board would be detrimental to the efficient and safe running of the ship pr to the maintenance of harmonious personal relations on board.
Q: What precautions would you take when holding a hearing of a disciplinary case, to protect the employer’s legal position?
A: I would ensure, especially where dismissal was my chosen sanction, that the hearing was conducted exactly as laid down in the code of conduct, that is in accordance with the principle of natural justice. I would ensure that I made formally-announced finding that the seafarer had committed a serious breach of code of conduct and that the man was given copies of all the statements made in OLB, and that he signed acknowledging receipt of them.
Q: What would you write in the official log book concerning a disciplinary case?
A: Full detail of alleged breach and the action taken by me in response to it.
Q: What document(S) should an accused seafarer be given?
A: A copy of every OLB entry relating to his case & it has to be acknowledge receipt by singing.
Q: What action would you take if a seaman, who appeared to be drunk, complained to you about the food at 2100 hours, while you wear watching a video?
A: Ensure the safety of ship, personnel & the seaman himself, if necessary. Find out when he is next on watch (at 2400 hrs). Sober him up-until then he’s potential liability to others. Discipline him he’s sober, if necessary. His complain may be genuine, but I have no duties to investigate unless there are 3 or more complainants. Make OLB entry.
Q: What action would you take regarding a seaman who was drunk onboard while on duty?
A: Ensure safety of the ship, personal & the seaman himself. Removed him from duty & substitute another. Sober him up. Discipline him in accordance with the code of conduct, if practicable. (was he drunk enough to jeopardise safety & personnel ?) The offence may justify dismissal.
Q: What action would you take regarding seaman who was drunk onboard off duty?
A: Ensure safety of the ship, personal & the seaman himself. If no threat to the safety, take on action beyond informal caution unless Company’s, character’s or ship’s rules prohibit alcohol. Perhaps give a D & A test before the start work again.
Q: Why should a seaman not be drunk when off duty? Why caution the man in the above case?
A: Every person on the muster list should be able to perform his or her duties at any time, weather in port or at sea.
Q: What entries should you make concerning a seaman left behind?
A: 1. An entry recording any provision made on the employer’s behalf to ensure that the proper officer has been informed on the seaman’s leaving behind.
2. An entry recording the date and place of leaving the seaman behind and the reason for leaving behind.
Q: What matter may seaman complain about that are specially provide for in merchant shipping legislation?
A: Provision and water supplies.
Q: Under what condition do seaman in a ship have a statutory right to complain to master, and what is the master required to do about any rightful complain?
A: If three or more seaman in a ship consider that the provisions or water supplied are not in accordance with regulation (because of bad quality, unfitness for use or deficiency in quantity), they may complain to the master. The master must investigate the complaint.
Q: Inspection for crew accommodation?
A: At least every 7 days, by master or an officer appointed by him accommodation by. The master must cause . an entry to be made in the OLB, regarding
1) The time and date of the inspection
2) The name and ranks of the inspection and
3) Particular of any respect in which the accommodation or any part of it was found by either inspector not to comply with the regulations.
To be inspect for:
1) Crew accommodation is maintained in a clean and habitable condition.
2) All equipment and installation required by the regulations is maintained in good working order:
3) All crew accommodation, except store room, is kept free from stores and other property not belonging to or provided for the use of the crew.
4) Cargo is not kept in any part of the crew accommodation and
5) Accommodation provided under the regulations is not used by passengers.
ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE
Q: Under what circumstances would you decide to make for a port of refuges?
A: When it becomes unsafe to continue the voyage for any reason, e.g. a dangerous shift off cargo; an inextinguishable fire; after suffering serious hull damage ( e.g. from grounding, collusion, heavy weather, loss painting); a main machinery failure not repairable at sea; loss of propeller or rudder.
Q: Who would you inform that you are making for a port of refuge, and what request would you make to these parties?
A: Owners, charterers; agent at original destination port. I would request owners to nominate an agent for me to contact at the port of refuge, and the P & I club correspondent. Owners would contact the classification society surveyor. On contacting nominated port agent, request him to notify relevant official (port state administration, harbour authority, customs, immigration, port health, etc).
Q: Your ship is 2 hours from the pilot station. What general preparation would you make for arrival in port?
A: Pre-arrival checks (anchors cleared, test engines astern, E/S running, navigational gear all working, parallel indexing). Make pilot boarding preparations. Send pre-arrival massages. Checks port entry publications. Close the bonded store. Have all customs declaration forms (if on board) and stores list, etc. completed. Have proper courtesy ensign ready
Q: What messages would you send before arriving at a port on a large ship?
ETA to the agent, with a request for berth details, crew relief arrangement, etc. and giving requirements for cash, provisions, bunker, FW, etc.
request for boatmen/linesmen, also to agent
request for a pilot-sometimes made direct to a pilot station harbour authority, or via agent ( check admiralty sailings directions for appropriate method)
notification to port health authority of any circumstances requiring the attention of the Port Medical Officer.( At a UK port the massage must arrive 4-12 hours before the ship.) I would also show health clearance signals.
Confirmation to port authority that all equipment is in good working order before entering port limits (usually made by VHF when near fairway)
If carrying dangerous goods or polluting goods, a check list for vessels carrying dangerous or polluting goods
I would check the charter party for any special instructions about messages to be sent. Request for tug(s) might be in conjunction with pilot request.
Q: If your vessel was on a time charter for 6 months, which party would be responsible for purchasing bunker fuel?
A: The time Charterer.
Q: What precautions would you take where the time charter is buying bunkers?
A: I would check that he was ordering fuel of the correct specification. The specification should have been agreed between the owners and charters and should be listed in the C/P.
Q: What precaution would you take when ordering bunkers to protect the owners’ interests as far as bunker quality was concerned?
A: In consolation with Chief Engineer, I would check the engine operation manuals, and if on time charter, the bunker clause. I would order the bunkers specifying an approval fuel standard, e.g. ‘BSMA 100’ rather then specifying only a type and viscosity, e.g. ‘IFO 180’ I would have you C/E check the bunkers presented for loading match the ship’s requirements and specification ordered. I would have the C/E make accurate tank surrounding before commencing bunkering in order verify the amount delivered. I would have the C/E make a compatibility test to confirm the bunker presented are compatible with fuel already on board and see that bunker are loaded into empty tanks if possible, and kept separate from the other bunkers until any analysis had been completed. I would also see that the vessel is, so far as possible, maintained upright and on even keel throughout the bunkering operation, on that samples of oil loaded were taken at regular intervals at the manifold.
Q: What other precaution would you take when bunkering?
A: Ensure that the bunker barge complies with ISPS code if they don’t issue a DOS. I would also ensure that local and international regulations are complied with throughout the operation; that scupper are fitted before commencing bunkering; that drain plug in manifold and fuel tank air pipe containment save-alls are in place before commencing bunkering; that the communication are established with the supply control position and signal to be used are understood by both side; that a maximum pumping rate and pressure are agreed with the supplier; that the condition of hoses and couplings is checked before (and after) bunker; that blanks and number of required nuts and bolts, etc. Are checked before bunkering; that the required hose lengths (allowing for ranging of vessel) are checked before bunkering; that valves are in the required positions before bunkering and that tank vent pipe are free from obstruction; that that barge or shore tank soundings and / or meter reading are checked before (and after) burking to help avert any problems concerning quantity; that frequent soundings are taken during the bunkering operation; that the rate of delivery is slowed down while topping off; that ample warring is given to the supplier to reduced the delivery rata and final shutting off; that accurate sounding of tanks are taken after bunkering and complied with pre-loading soundings to determine to the quantity delivered; and that the oil record book, and deck and engine room logbook are completed immediately bunkering with accurate details of the operation.
Q: What are the possible consequences of not having proper procedures for bunkering operation?
a fine on the owner/operators
a fine on me as master
detention of my ship
an adverse effect on owner’s deductibles and standing with their P & I club
loss of ISM certification
Q: What action would you take if a spillage occurred during bunkering?
A: I would take immediate steps to:
stop the bunkering operation
minimise the spread of the oil in the harbour, taking all possible action to contained the spillage until shore assistance arrives, but without using any dispersants for which approval had not previously been obtain
stop any hot work on board or near by vessels and quays
contact harbour authorities (on VHF if possible); ships agent; P & I club correspondent; owners/managers;
make statutory report to MAIB and coastal state administration
obtain samples of oil from which the spillage came
establish the facts and (before investigators arrive, if possible) write a full report of the occurrence, stating all efforts taken by the ships crew to deal with the spillage
attempted to establish the quantity of oil sallied. Together with my officer and crew I would work closely with the local authorities in the clean-up operation
Q: What agreements would you accept the Chief Engineer to make for taking bunkers samples?
A: I would accept the C/E to take at list two samples during the bunkering. If the vessel carries on board fuel test kit, the C/E should carry out a sports analysis and, if this indicate the fuel is unsuitable, a full analysis should be carried out at an approved the shore the laboratory before the bunker are used. In any event, one sample should be retained on board until all bunkers loaded have been burn without problem, while other should forwarded to an independent fuel analysis service. Sample of oil loaded during bunkering should be scaled, dated and singed by chief engineer and supplier.
Q: International Safety Management Code.
ISM means the International Safety Management Code for the safe operation of Ships and Pollution prevention.
To ensure safety at sea, prevention of human injury or loss of life and avoidance of damage to the environment.
Provided for safe practices in ship operation and safe working environment.
Establish safeguards against all identified risks.
1) Policy: company have to develop a policy for safety and environment protection policy.
2) Procedure: Company to establish procedure to ensure safe operation of ships and protection.
3) Designated person: Person ashore having direct access to the highest level of management.
4) Master Responsibility and Authority:
Implementing the safety and environment protection policy of the company.
Motivating the crew in the observation of that policy.
Issuing appropriate order and instruction in a clear and simple manner.
Verifying specific requirements are observed and
Receiving the SMS and reporting its deficiencies to the based management.
5) Resource and Personal:
Company should ensure each ship is master with qualified and fully conversant with company’s SMS.
Company should ensure each ship is manned with qualified, Certificated and medically fit seafarers and given proper familiarisation with their duties.
6) Shipboard operation: company should established procedures for the preparation on plans and instructions for key shipboard operations concerning the safety of the ship and prevention of pollution.
7) Emergency preparedness: Company should established procedures to identify, describe and respond to potential emergency shipboard situations, and programmes for drills and exercise.
8) Non-Conformities & Reportings: When any work goes out of plan. Company should establish procedures for the implementation of corrective action.
9) Maintenance of the ship and equipment: Company should ensure inspection held, any Non-Conformity is reported, appropriate corrective action taken and all activities recorded.
10) Documentation’s: Company should establish and maintain procedures to control all documents and data which are relevant to SMS.
11) Internal audit: Company should carryout internal audit to verify all policy implemented.
12) External audit: To verify company and ship are working a per SMS.
13) Certification: Safety Management certificate to be given to a ship after audit.
Q: Life saving appliances for all ship.
1) 3 two-way VHF radio telephone.
2) Radar Transponder-1.
3) 12 rocket parachute flare.
4) On board communication station, and alarm system and public address system on passenger ship.
5) Muster List-Operating instructions.
6) Life buoys:
Length of the ship in meters Minimum no. of life buoys
100 and under 150
150 and under 200
200 and over
- At least 2 with buoyant life line
- At least ½ with self-igniting lights
- At least 2 with self-activating smoke signals
7) Life jacket:
- For adult-100% + 5% extra ( for UK cargo ships 25% extra )
- For Children-10% of the number of passenger on board
- Life Jacket for person on watch and remotely located survival craft.
- Life jacket shall be fitted with light.
8) Immersion Suit and thermal protective aids:
At least three immersion suit, and thermal protective aids for person onboard not provided with immersion suit for each life boat. But it is not required if
has totally enclose life boats on each side
constantly engage on a voyage in warm climates.
9) Survival craft
Totally enclose life boat both side 100%
Life raft aggregated 100% when easily transferable from one side to another or 100% each side.
Horizontal distance if more than 100mm from nearest survival craft then another life raft to be place fwd or aft.
10) Rescue boat: one
11) Training manual.
12) Line throwing appliances: 4 nos.
Q: Fire protection regulation
A: For Class 7 vessel
Vessel to be fitted with a fire main, water service pipes and hydrants with no other connection other then for washing down.
Sufficient appliances to ensure at least two jets of water to way point from separate hydrants.
One hoses for every 30m of ship’s length (minimum 5). Total length of at least 60% ship’s length, plus one spare hose. (Engine room extra)
Sufficient to produce two jets of water at any point. Each machinery / boiler space to have at least 2 hydrant, one each side, plus one in he shaft tunnel.
Two fire pumps + one other pumps ( general service, ballast or bilge’s pump ) each capable of producing two jets of water from separated hydrants. If all pumps are in same compartment (usually E. R.) an independently driven emergency fire pumps is required out side that compartment.
Portable fire extinguishers:
Sufficient extinguisher so that at least one is readily available in any part of the accommodation or service space. Not less then 5(3 if under 1000t) , spare charges for 50% of each type unless not readily recharged in which case an additional extinguisher of the same type must be provided.
Fixed Smothering System:
Ships 2000t or over to be provide with fixed gas smothering system for every cargo space. An exemption may be granted of ship only carries bulk cargoes of low fire hazard and the v/I is fitted with steel hatches and all opening to that compartment can be sealed. Ro/Ro cargo space not capable of being sealed to be protected by a fixed water spaying system instead.
A fixed smothering system-pressure water, gas foam. In each boiler space a large foam extinguisher (min 135 litters) or CO2 equivalent (min 45 kg). Plus one portable extinguisher plus 0.3m3 sand and a scoop.
Sufficient 45 litre from or 16 kg CO2 extinguisher to reach any part or a fixed system-water spraying or gas smothering. Sufficient portable extinguisher (min 2) so that at least one is not more then 10m walking distance from any point. Where such are periodically unmanned, a fixed system-water spraying or gas smothering.
Automatic fire detection and alarm system
Over 400t: 4.2500t-400t:3 under 2500t:2
One outfit to be of the air hose type, remainder self contained type.
For class 7 (T)
In addition to the above
Inert Gas system:
Required if tanker if tanker over 20,000t and carrying volatile oil; also required if engaged in crude Oil washing.
Fixed deck foam System:
To provide 50mm foam on deck in no than 15 mins. (150mm in machinery spaces / boiler rooms)
Fixed fire extinguisher system operable foam outside compartment.
At least 4. One air hose type, remainder self contained.
For class 1
In addition to class 7 requirements:
Fire patrol system plus manual fire alarm in passenger/crew spaces. Fire detection and alarm system for inaccessible spaces.
At least 3 if over 400t.
One for each hydrant.
Permanently pressurised or readily accessible remote control for pumps.
Public address System
For all accommodation, public and service space. Special crew alarm system (may from part of general alarm system).
On each deck: 2 portable extinguishers within floodable zone below the bulkhead deck. Above that, One extinguisher each. One portable extinguisher and asbestos blanket per galley (two of each if galley area more than 45m2). One extinguisher per control room (radio room, navigating space, central fire recording space, emergency generator space ). In sepses carrying motor vehicles: to extinguishers suitable for oil fires for each 40m of decks space, at least one each side and at least one each access point. In addition, to foam applicators for used in this spaces.
Two fireman’s outfits plus two extra outfits for each 80meters of length of passenger/service space. One to be of air hose type, reminder self contained.
Fire / smoke detection system. No steam smothering.
Max. Length 18m unless breadth of ship exceeds 27m in which case max. Length 27m.
All nozzles to be dual purpose type.
Portable fire Extinguishers:
Liquid: between 9 and 13.2 litters, Dry powder min 4.5 kg,CO2: min 3kg. Max weight 25.6 kg, Not more than 15% of extinguishers of dry powder.
Fixed CO2 Flooding:
Quantity : 30% of larges cargo compartment (45% IF Ro-Ro deck) and 40% Engine room, Min. Rate of flooding (E.R.) 85% of total volume in two minutes ( Ro-Ro deck must provide two thirds CO2 within 10 minutes.
Means of stopping machinery:
To be provide with manes of stopping fans, machinery, pumps, etc. From outside of space.
Outfit to widely separated, and to consist of:
n B.A .Sets
n Portable battery operated safety lamp (3 hrs Duration).
n Fireman’s axe
n Protective clothing
n Boots and gloves of non conducting material (e.g. rubber).
n Rigid helmet
Adjacent to loading area
n Dry powder extinguisher 45 kg
n Foam application system
n CO2 extinguisher 16 kg
Ro-Ro Cargo Spaces:
Mechanical ventilation system ( at least 6changes / hours). At least 2 portable extinguishers for every 40m length of deck spaces (1 at each access point). Fixed water spraying system ( water curtains). Plus 3 water for application units.
General arrangement Plans:
Displayed in public place for guidance of master and officers. A duplicate set to be stored in a prominently marked watertight enclose outside the deck house for the assistance of shore fire fighting personnel.
Q: What is requirements for CO2 that you must have to have on board for cargo hold and Machinery?
A: For cargo hold- 30 % vol. of largest cargo hold if carried. 45 % vol. if cargo hold carry vehicle and vehicle are fitted with F.O. tanks and are full of F.O.
For machinery space-40 % vol. of machinery space excluding Engine casing. 35 % vol. of machinery spaces including Engine casing.
A: Squat is an increases in draught caused by a vessel travelling through the water at a significant speed with a limited under keel clearance.
Whilst it can occur in relating deep water, it is more pronounced when the depth of the water is less than twice the draft in other words, the under keel clearance is less than the v/I,s draught
There is also likely to be a change in trim since the LCB is likely to changes with change of draught, thereby creating a trimming moment.
Factors increasing squat
1) High speed ( squat a speed)
2) High propeller speed
3) Deep draught
4) Shallow depth of water
5) High block co-efficient
6) Board beam
7) Narrow channel
8) Large trim
Sign that V/I is experiencing shallow water effect-
1) Speed decrease
2) R.P.M. decrease
3) Vibration may occur
4) Steering may affected v/I become sluggish manoeuvre
5) Ship made waves increase in amplitude.
6) Ship wake changes colour/become muddy.
7) Stopping distance is decreased.
Reduce speed if squat is suspected.
Q: Interaction-Action Over taking?
- Establish communication between vessels.
- Agreed overtaking procedure. Lead vessel to slow down to reduce interactive forces. overtaking vessel to speed up so as to reduce the period the vessel are in close proximity to a minimum.
- Select wide and straight section of the channel.
- Select deeper stretch of channel in order to reduce squat and interactive forces.
- Ensure no other traffic in the vicinity.
- Ensure experienced and competent helmsman on wheel who is aware of sudden swings possible due to interaction. Both Warm engine room.
- Ensure maximum distance between vessels whilst overtaking manoeuvre is tacking place.