Master Section 5
- Mediterranean Sea
- Baltic Sea
- Black Sea
- Red Sea
- Persian Gulf
- Gulf of Aden
- Antarctic area
REGULAR OF DISCHARGE OF OIL
Any discharge of oil into the sea is prohibited except when the following conditions are satisfied:-
For an oil tanker
- The tanker is not within a special area
- The tanker is more than 50 nautical miles from the nearest land
- The tanker is proceeding en route
- The instantaneous rate of oil counter does nit exceed 30 liters per nautical mile
- The total quantity of oil discharge into the sea does not exceed for existing tankers 1/15000 of the total quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a part and for new tankers 1/30000 of the total quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a part
- The tanker has a operation an oil discharge monitoring and control system and a slop tank arrangement.
From a ship of 400 tons gross tonnage and above other than an oil tanker and from machinery space bilge’s excluding pump-room bilge’s of an oil tanker unless mixed with oil cargo residue
- The ship is not within a special area
- The ship is proceeding en route
- The oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 parts per million
- The ship has in operation a) 400-1000 tons gross tonnage an oil filtering equipment
- Above 1000 tons gross tonnage an oil filtering equipment with arrangements for an alarm system and for automatically stopping any discharge of oily mixture when the oil content of the effluent exceeds 15 parts per million
OIL RECORD BOOK
Every oil tanker of 150 tons gross tonnage and above and every ship of 400 tons gross tonnage and above other then an oil tanker shall be provided with an Oil Record Book Part I (Machinery Space Operations).
Every oil tanker of 150 tons gross tonnage and above shall be provided with an Oil Record Book Part II (Cargo/ballast Operations).
The Oil Record Book shall be competed on each occasion, on a tank to tank basis if appropriate whenever any of the following operations take place in the ship.
(a) for machinery space operations( all ships)
- Ballasting or cleaning of oil fuel tanks
- Discharges of dirty ballast or cleaning water from tanks
- Disposal of oily residues
- Discharge overboard or disposal otherwise of bilge water which has accumulated in machinery space
(b) for cargo/ballast operations( oil tankers)
- Loading of oil cargo
- Internal transfer of oil cargo during voyage
- Unloading of oil cargo
- Ballasting of cargo tanks and dedicated clean ballast tank
- Cleaning of cargo tanks including crude oil washing
- Discharge of ballast except from segregated ballast tank
- Discharge water from slop tanks
- Closing of all applicable valves or similar devices after slop tank discharge operations
- Closing of valves necessary for isolation of dedicated clean ballast tanks from cargo and stripping lines after slop tank discharge operations
- Disposal of residues
CARGO RECORD BOOK
Regulation 9 of ANNEX II to MARPOL 73 states that the Cargo Record Book must be completed, on a tank to tank basis, whenever any of the following operations are carried out.
- Cargo transfer
- Transfer of residues to a slop tank
- Tank cleaning
- Transfer from slop tank
- Ballasting of cargo tanks
- Transfer of dirty ballast water
- Any permitted discharge into the sea
GARBAGE SPECIAL AREAS
- Mediterranean Sea
- Baltic Sea
- Black Sea
- Red Sea
- Persian Gulf
- North sea
- Antarctic sea
- Wider Caribbean
CLASSES OF GARBAGE
- Floating dunnage lining and packing material
- Ground down paper products, rags glass, metal, bottles, crockery, etc.
- Paper products, rags, glass, metal bottles, crockery, etc.
- Food waste
- Incinerator Ahs
OUTSIDE SPECIAL AREAS
- No plastics
- Floating materials – more than 25 nautical miles
- Food, crockery, etc, comminuted to pass 25mm screen- more than 3 nautical miles
- INSIDE SPECIAL AREA
- Food waste – more than 12 nautical miles
- IN WIDER CARIBBEAN REGION Food waste comminuted to pass 25 mm screen- more than 3 nautical miles
MASTERS HANDING OVER DOCUMENTS
(all in bold required by c/o when handing over in addition, the ships plans, sounding of all tanks, defect list, particular cautions)
- Certificate of registry (64 shares, first master signs it)
Official Log Book (RGS, Name of ship, Port of registry, Official number, Gross tonnage, Registered tonnage, Certificate number of master, Owners name and address, Date open/closed)
- Safety construction certificate ( must have a TYPE TESTED MAGNETIC COMPASS Before issuing this certificate) (VALIDITY – 5 YEARS)
- Safety radio certificate (VALIDITY – 5 YEARS)
- Safety equipment certificate (VALIDITY – 5 YEARS) (Record of Inspection)
- Load line certificate (VALIDITY – 5 YEARS)
- De-Rat exempt certificate (VALIDITY – 6 MONTHS)
- International oil pollution and prevention (VALIDITY – 5 YEARS)
- Manning certificate
- Register of lifting appliance and cargo gear
- Tonnage certificate (Panama/Suez)
- Anchor and cable certificate
- Certificate of limited liability
- Ships articles
- Discharge book if held
- Ships accounts and money
- Cargo plan & details (manifest) (hazardous, heavy lift, valuables)
- Sea worthy certificate (Passenger vessels) (VALIDITY – 1 YEARS)
- Crew list and certificate of competency if held
- Safety management certificate
- Document of compliance (copy only)
Fire fighting appliance (cargo ships)
Capacity of fire pumps ( Total required capacity not ore than 180m3/hr)
- Each fire pump (other than emergency fire pump ) shall have a capacity not less than 80% off total required capacity divided by minimum no. of required pumps but in any case not less than 25m3/hr.
- Each pump capable of delivering at least 2 required jest of water.
G/S, Ball, Bilge pumps accepted as fire pumps provided:
- Not normally used for pumping oil.
- If used occasionally have suitable changeover arrangements fitted.
Emergency fire pump:
- Capacity not less than 40% of total required capacity of the fire pumps but in any case not less than 25m3/hr.
- Capable of delivering 2 jets of water with minimum pressure (at a 3rd hydrant-not a SOLAS requirement) not less than 2.1 bar.
- Diesel power source of pump started in cold condition of 0by hand or by power at least 6 times within a period of 30 min. and at least twice within 1st 10 min.
- Tank to have sufficient fuel for least three hrs. and reserve fuel outside main machinery space to allow the pump to run for additional 15 hrs. (total suction head & net positive suction head of the pump to be such that they will provide for required capacity & pressure under all conditions of list, trim, roll & pitched likely to be encountered in service)
- No direct access between engine room & emergency fire pump. If access provided, through & air lock.
- Isolation valves in tankers to be fitted on the fire main on poop & tank deck at intervals not more than 40 meters to pressure integrity of fire main system (diam. Of fire main: sufficient for maximum discharge from 2 pumps operating simultaneously except for cargo ships the diam. Need sufficient for discharge of 140 m3/hr.)
- Number and position such that at least two jets of water not from the same hydrant can reach any part of the ship.
- One shall be from a signal length of a hose.
- Engine room hydrant-one on each side and one in tunnel.
Passenger ships: One fire hose for each hydrant.
Cargo ships: One for each 30 meter length of the vessel and one spare but in no case less than 5 in nos.
(Length of hose not less than 18 meter if breadth of vessel more than 27 meter then hose length of 27 meter but more) – not in SOLAS.
- All nozzles of dual purpose type i.e. spray and jet in corroborating a shut off.
- Standard nozzle size=12mm, 16mm and 19mm.
- For accommodations and service spaces a nozzle side greater than 12mm need not be used.
- Machinery spaces more than 19mm need not be used.
- Cargo spaces: Quantity of CO2 available be sufficient to give a minimum volume of gas equal to 30% of the gross volume of largest cargo space so protected by the ship.
- Machinery space: Quantity of CO2 available be to give a minimum volume of gas equal to 40 % of the gross volume of space ( excluding casing )or 35% of the gross volume of space (including casing). For machinery spaces, the fixed piping system shall be such that 85% of the gas can be discharged into the space within 2 minutes.
- For the purpose of the above volume of free CO2 shall be calculated at 0.56m3/kg.
- Two separate controls shall be provided for releasing
- One control shall be used to discharge the gas from its storage container.
- The other to open the valve of the piping which conveys the gas to the protected space.
- All of approved type and design capacity of portable extinguisher not more than 13.5 liters and not less than 9 liters.
- Spare charge for 100% of extinguishers.
- Portable foam applicator consists of an air foam nozzle of an inductor type capable of being connected to the fire main by a fire hose and a portable tank of at least 20 liters.
- Foam marking liquid and one spare tank.
- Rate of foam 1.5m3/minute.
- One of the portable fire extinguishers intended for use in any space to be stowed outside the entrance.
- Boiler room:
Space with internal combustion machinery :
Any fixed extinguishing system.
At least 1 set of foam applicator unit.
Sufficient number of foam type extinguishing capacity 45 liters plus sufficient number of portable foam so placed that walking distance between extinguishers not more than 10 meters.
Space with internal combustion machinery :
Sufficient to fill the greatest space to be protected at a rate of at least 1 meter in depth / minute.
Produce a volume of foam equal to 5 times the volume of the space.
Expansion ratio of not less than 5 liters/m2/minute.
Sprinklers: Application rate of less than 5 liters/m2/minute.
Fire mans outfit:
Fire proof protective clothing outer surface waterproof
Boots and gloves of rubber or non-conductive of electricity.
Electric safety lamp (approved type) minimum burning period 3 hours.
An axe (approved type with cover)
SCBA at least 1200 liters capacity or capable functioning for at least 30 minutes. Normal breathing rate 40 liters / minute.
Fire proof line attached to harness.
All ships at least 2 fireman’s outfit’s.
To carry at least 4 sets of fire mans outfits widely spread.>for tankers.
International shore connection:
Outside diameter 178mm
Inside diameter 64mm
Bolt circle diameter 132mm
Slots in flange 4 holes, 19 mm in diameter
Flange thickness minimum 14.5 mm
Bolts and nuts 4 nos., each 16 mm in diameter, 50 mm in length
Washer’s 8 non.
Fixed deck foam system: (tanker’s – low expansion)
Capable of delivering foam to entire cargo tank deck as well as into cargo tank if the is ruptured.
Control station outside and away from cargo area and readily accessible, simple and rapid operation.
Rate of foam not less than 0.6liters/m2/minute,
Sufficient supply of foam concentrate to produce foam for at least 20 minutes. (IG system fitted)
Foam supplied through foam monitor and applicators. (1250liter/min)
Capacity of any monitors at least 3 liter/m2/minute.
Capacity of applicator not less than 400 liters/minute and throw not less than 15 meter
Inert gas systems: (cargo tank protection)
Maintaining O2 content less than 8 % by volume in any part of cargo tank.
Positive pressure at all times.
Maintaining O2 content less than 5 % in the IG main.
System capable of delivering IG to cargo tanks at a rate of at least 125% of the maximum discharge rate.
2 blowers: capacity 20000 m2/hr
IG : capacity 1000 m3 / hr
Vacuum : 200 mm wg
High pressure :: 1200 mm wg
Steering Gear: (Regulation 29)
All ships to be provided with main and auxiliary steering gear, independent from each other.
Main steering gear:
Rudderstock shall be
Adequate strength and capable of steering the ship at maximum ahead speed.
Capable of putting rudder over from 35 one side to 35 other side at its deepest draft and maximum ahead service speed and 35 on either side to 30 on other side in 28 seconds.
Operated by power and designed so as not to incur damages at maximum astern speed.
Auxiliary steering gear:
Adequate strength and capable of steering at the navigable speed.
Capable of putting rudder over from 15 one side to 15 the other side in 60 seconds, when vessel at deepest draft and running ahead at ½ maximum ahead service speed or 7 knots whichever is greater.
Steering gear control from Navigation speed.
Auxiliary steering gear controls from locally and if power operated also operable from Navigation Bridge.
Steering capability to be regained in not more then 45 second after the loss of one power system.
Emergency power: (capable of illuminating)
Passenger ship: not less than 36 hours*
Cargo ships: not less than 18 hours*
* Navigation bridge, navigation lights, navigation equipment, aldis, whistle, accommodation, alleyway, stairway, machinery space, control stations, radio room, LSA gear, FFA gear, communication.
Test and drills:
Test is within 12 hours of departure.
Emergency steering drills once every 3 months.
A mechanical power winch with brake.
Two separate falls.
A ladder consisting of a rigid upper part on which the pilot stands and a flexible lower past of a short length of pilot ladder which enables a person to board from or disembark a launch.
Hand operating gear in emergencies.
Safety limit switch.
Emergency stops (capable to be operated by person in the hoist)
Speed of hoist 15-30 meter/minute.
Hoist securely attached to ships structure not side rails.
Falls long enough to do the job and still have 3 times on the drum.
Rigid part – 2.5 meters long.
Non skid steps safe access and safe hand holds.
Spreader with rollers fitted at lower end to roll freely on shipside.
Flexible lower part must be 8” steps long.
New hoist subjected to over load test of 2.2 times the working load.
Operating test of 10% over load.
Every 6 months regular test rigging and inspection which includes a load test of 150kgs.
Entry in ships official log book.
Life saving appliances:
Length <100 min no of buoys = 8
100 <150 min no of buoys = 10
150 <200 min no of buoys = 12
Length <200 min no of buoys = 14
Outer diameter not more then 800 mm
Inner diameter not more then 400 mm
Constructed of buoyant material.
Mass not less than 2.5 kgs (MOB not less than 4 kgs )
Support 14.5 kg of iron for 24 hours in fresh water.
Withstand a drop into water from a stowage position to water line in light condition or 30 meter whichever is greater.
Fitted with grab line not less than 9.5 mm in diameter. Grab line secured at 4 equidistant points. Length not less than 4 times the outside diameter.
Painted international orange / highly visible colour.
Readily available on both side of vessel. At least one at stern. No permanent securing.
At list one buoy on each side fitted with buoyant life line (2 x stow height or 30 meter)
At least ½ the no of life buoys with SI lights (2 hours)
At least 2 with smoke floats (15 minutes)
Marked in roman-name and port of registry.
One for every person on board + 25% extra.
Fitted with retro reflective tape + life jackets lights (visibility 1 mile )
For children 10 % of the no of passenger on board
Correctly donning within 1 minute.
Capable of wearing inside out
Can jump from a height of 4.5 meters into water
Turn the body of an unconscious person in 5 sec’s
Lift the mouth 128mm cleat of the water
Fitted with a whistle
Buoyancy no reduced by more than 5% after 24 hour immersion in fresh water
Unpacked + donned within 2 minutes
Permit the wearer to climb up and down a vertical ladder at least 5 meter in length
Jumps from a height of 4.5 meter into water
Cover the whole body with exception of face.
Core temperature does not fall more than 2C after a period of 6 hours in water of temperature 0- 2C
Turn the wearer face up in 5 seconds.
Provided for every person assigned to crew rescue boat.
Cargo ships for each life boat at least 3 suits or if necessary 1 for each person on board
TPA for persons on board not provided for by immersion suits.
Immersion suits and TAP not required if –
Vessel hand total enclosed life boats for 100 % of compliment on each side
Free fall life boat for 100 % of compliment
Engaged in warm climates
If vessel less than 85 meters than davit launched life rafts required 100% of compliment
Capable of being launched from stowage position with parent vessel making a headway of 5 knots.
Means of rapid recovery
Capability to maneuver at 6 knots for 4 hours and tow the largest life raft with full compliment at 2 knots.
Function – recover person from water, marshal survival craft.
In a state of continuous readiness ( launching in 5 minutes )
Stowed clear of other survival craft
Length not less then 3.8 meters and more than 8.5 meters.
Capable of carrying at least 5 seated person and 1 lying down.
One buoyant line of 50 meter length for towing purpose.
Tow buoyant rescue quoits with 30 meter line
Efficiency radar reflector or SART.
Water proof 1st aid kit.
TPA for 10 % or 2 of total capacity
A search light
Muster and drills:
Boats and fire drill once a month
Within 24 hours of vessel leaving port if more than 25% of crew have not participate in a drill in the previous month
Passenger ships: muster within 24 hours of embarkation
Bridge, engine room, crew mess room, officers mess room.
Lifeboats launched and manoeurved in water once every 3 months, during a drill.
Free fall life boats: if impracticable to launch every 3 months, then should be davit lowered every 3 months, provided that the life boat is free fall launched at once in 6 months.
Rescue boats: launched and manouevred once a month in any case once every 3 months
On board training:
Used of LSA and FFA to be given to new crew as soon as joining or within 2 weeks.
Individual instruction on all LSA within 2 months
Use of davit launched life rafts within 4 months
Maintenance and inspection
Turned end for end at intervals not more than 30 months (2 ½ years)
Renewed not more than 5 years unless required earlier
All survival craft, rescue boats and launching appliances inspected visually
Engines of life boats and rescue boats run ahead and astern for not less than three minutes
General emergency alarm (if not don daily)
All LSA, life boats and rescue boats equipment using checklist provided.
Servicing of life rafts and HRU(life jackets inflatable, rescue boats inflatable)
Every 12 months can be extended for additional 5months but not more.
Disposable HRU’s(HAMER) 2years life cycle.
Passenger vessels engaged in short international voyages
Life bots for at least 30% of passengers + life rafts for remaining.
In addition-life rafts for at least 25% of passenger’s
Passenger ships engaged in international voyages additional requirements:
Lifeboats: partially or totally enclosed life boats for 50 % of total complement on each side.
Life raft may be substituted for boats but boats capacity should never be less than 37.5% of the total compliment
Rafts must be davit launched
In addition life rafts for 25% of the compliment
Rescue boat: one on each side.
Cargo ships additional requirement:
Lifeboats one or more totally enclosed on each side for 100% of compliment.
Life rafts to accommodate total no of persons on board if not readily transferable for launching on either side of ship, total capacity on each side for 100% of compliment.
If free fall life boat, then life rafts on each side foe 100% 0f compliment and at least one side of ship to have davit launched rafts.
Vessel less than 85 meter in length
Life raft on side for 100% compliment- if life rafts are not readily transferable then additional life raft to be provided so that total capacity on each side = 150% of compliment.
Rescue boat can be counted for crew.
Where survival craft are stowed in a position which is more than 100 meter stern or stem, she shall carry additional life raft (6 person) forward or aft as practicable.
Such life raft are manually operated
Marking on life rafts:
Name and port of registry of ship (not on container)
Markers name or trade mark
Name of approving authority
Type of emergency pack ( A B )
Length off painter
Drop test height (maximum stowage height above water level)
Launching instructions and last service data.
¨ Life rafts: capable of staying afloat for a period of 30 days in all sea conditions
¨ Weak link breaking strain 2.20.4 kn.
¨ HRU automatic release of life raft @ depth of 4 meter.
¨ Life boat engine: capable of running to provide a speed of 6 knots for a period of 24 hours- shall have a sufficient fuel to last 24 hours.
¨ To be capable of carrying a life raft of 25 person with full compliment and equipment with a speed of 2 knots.
Marking on the life boats:
Name and port of registry of vessel on each side of bow
Lifeboat number on each side of bow and on top of boat to identify from air.
Retro reflective tape all round at intervals of 12”
Fire protected life boats:
Capable of protecting the person inside when enveloped in a continues fire for less than 8 minutes
Self contained air supply:
To provide breathable air with engines running for a period not less than 10 minutes pressure not less than outside atmospheric pressure and not more than 20 mbs above the outside atmospheric pressure
Line throwing apparatus:
Capable of throwing a line with reasonable accuracy
Have not less than 4 projectiles each capable of carrying the line at least 230 mm in calm weather.
Include not less than 4 lines of breaking strength 2 Kn.
Instructions and diagrams on separation (pains wessex) (schermuly)
Pyrotechnics in life boats and rescue boat and life rafts:
6 hand flares 4 rocket parachutes 2 buoyant smoke floats
Contained in water tight casing
Instructions and diagram on operating procedure
Burn bright red colour
Burning period not less than 1 minute (10 second is water – submerged 100 meter below water)
Contained in water tight casing
Instructions and diagram on operating procedure
Reach an altitude of 300 meter ( fixed vertically ) and eject paraflare
Burn bright red colour not less than 30000 candelas
Burning period not less than 40 seconds descent not more than 5 meter/second
Contained in water tight casing
Instructions and diagram on operation procedure
Emit smoke of highly visible colour (orange) for not less than 3 minutes in clam water. No flame.
Not suspended in sea way (smoke for 10 seconds if submerged in water)
SOLAS appendix 3
Certificate and documents required to be carried on board ships:
Certificate of registry validity: 5 years
International loading certificate validity: 5 years
Intact stability — validity: 5 years
Minimum safe manning certificate ?
Certificate for master, officers, and ratings ?
International tonnage certificate validity: life long
Deratting or de-ratting exemption certificate validity: 6 months
Oil record book to be kept on board for 3 years
Cargo ship safety construction certificate validity: 5 years
Cargo ship equipment certificate validity: 5 years
Cargo ship safety radio certificate validity: 5 years
D.O.C. with —— for ships carrying dangerous cargo ?
Dangerous goods manifest or stowage plan ?
¨ For passenger ships: including no 1 to no 10 and also
Passenger ship safety certificate validity: 5 years
¨ For ships carrying liquid cargo in bulk: including no 1 to 12 and also
International oil pollution prevention certificate for the carriage of noxious in bulk (NLS certificate) validity: 5 years
Cargo record book validity: kept for 3 years
Certificate of fitness for carriage of dangerous chemicals/liquefied gasses in bulk validity: 5 years
Grain stability booklet for grain carries (document of authorization for grain carriage)
International oil pollution prevention (IOPP) 5yrs
Certificate of insurance of other financial security in respect of civil liability for oil pollution (CLC)
Noise survey repot
Ship board oil pollution emergency plan (SOPEP) vessels response to pollution prevention (VRPP)
For oil tankers equal to or more than 100 GRT
Other ships equal to or more than 400 GRT
Under ISM Code:
Document of compliment issued for every company complying with the ISM code copy of certificate to be held on ship
Safety management certificate issued for every ship complying with ISM (also company must comply = DOC)
– will provide
– in order to improve
safety if shipping
safety of life at sea
prevent or minimize pollution
numbered in sequence from MGN 1
– info for a more limited audience
e.g. info on training establishments
Or equipment manufacturers
Or which will be use for a short period of time
numbered in sequence from MIN 1
cancellation date typically 12 months
– mandatory info which must be complied with under UK legislation
– these will b relate to SI’s and contain technical detail of such regulations
numbered in sequence continuing the present numbers but using the initial letters MSM
Three complimentary series:
Other info of relevance to shipping and fish industries
Salt Water MSN White
Great Britain MGN Blue
Inert Gas MIN Green
MIN 37 (M + F)
An investigation into capsize and stability multi vessels
MIN 38 (M)
Research project 397
Ships specific tagging of oil contaminated discharges
Tow type of tagging
Non radio active isotopes
What is tagging- adding an identifying code to oil cargo and fuel this method was suggested after taking OIL SOURCE IDENTIFICATION Techniques such as hydrocarbon biomarker finger printing
Inconclusive because of
Several ships used to carry the same cargo
Ships took bunkers from the same source
MIN 31 (M + F)
Current on 1st September’98
Comprises annual list of MCA notices and includes a subject index.
Shows all MSN’s MIN’s and MGN’s current on 1st September’98
FSA (formal safety assessment)
Formal safety assessment technique have been developed by the MCA on recommendation of House of Lords committee
Will ban organizations in paint by Jan 2003
Recommend new testing procedure for monitoring the level of atmospheric pollution from ships
North foreland light house in kent was the last manned light house in the UK Decommissioned (last month-outdated information)
Observer safe operation of ships
Prevent loss of life and damage
Protect environment especially marine environment
Designated person from compare – DPA designated person ashore
Master responsible from ship
¨ Internal audits
¨ Report non confirmative NCR-non conformance report
¨ Corrective action
¨ Log all activities
¨ Have an approved SMS ( safety management )
About cargo stowage:
Weight / area of cargo = loading expression in t/m2
If cargo =30 t maximum loading of deck =2.5 t/m2
Then minimum are over which the weight must be spread =30/2.5=12m2
And therefore used good dunnage and safer to add 5% to the weight when calculating the area.
Must have safety approved plate every approved container stating-
Maximum operating gross weight
Allowable stacking weight
Transverse racking test load valve
Marks on a anchor:
Markers name or initials
No of certificate
Letters indicating the certifying authority
Type of anchor
Weight of anchor including crown shackle in kgs
Length of shark in mm
Length of arm in mm
Weight of head of anchor
No of test certificate
No and date of drop test
¨ Spider band: derrick head
¨ Hound band: mast head for preventer backstays
RULE OF THE ROAD
- One set i=of portable foam applicator unit required.
- At least 2 portable fire extinguisher
- At least 1 approved foam type extinguisher of capacity 135 liters.
- A receptacle containing sand or sawdust impregnated with soda.
- Any fixed fire – extinguishing system – e.g. CO2, foam, water spray.